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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 22901-23000   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremcfilresi 22901 A Cauchy filter on a metric subspace extends to a Cauchy filter in the larger space. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
((𝐷 ∈ (∞Met‘𝑋) ∧ 𝐹 ∈ (CauFil‘(𝐷 ↾ (𝑌 × 𝑌)))) → (𝑋filGen𝐹) ∈ (CauFil‘𝐷))

Theoremcfilres 22902 Cauchy filter on a metric subspace. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
((𝐷 ∈ (∞Met‘𝑋) ∧ 𝐹 ∈ (Fil‘𝑋) ∧ 𝑌𝐹) → (𝐹 ∈ (CauFil‘𝐷) ↔ (𝐹t 𝑌) ∈ (CauFil‘(𝐷 ↾ (𝑌 × 𝑌)))))

Theoremcaussi 22903 Cauchy sequence on a metric subspace. (Contributed by NM, 30-Jan-2008.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 30-Dec-2013.)
(𝐷 ∈ (∞Met‘𝑋) → (Cau‘(𝐷 ↾ (𝑌 × 𝑌))) ⊆ (Cau‘𝐷))

Theoremcauss 22904 Cauchy sequence on a metric subspace. (Contributed by NM, 29-Jan-2008.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 30-Dec-2013.)
((𝐷 ∈ (∞Met‘𝑋) ∧ 𝐹:ℕ⟶𝑌) → (𝐹 ∈ (Cau‘𝐷) ↔ 𝐹 ∈ (Cau‘(𝐷 ↾ (𝑌 × 𝑌)))))

Theoremequivcfil 22905* If the metric 𝐷 is "strongly finer" than 𝐶 (meaning that there is a positive real constant 𝑅 such that 𝐶(𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑅 · 𝐷(𝑥, 𝑦)), all the 𝐷-Cauchy filters are also 𝐶-Cauchy. (Using this theorem twice in each direction states that if two metrics are strongly equivalent, then they have the same Cauchy sequences.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Sep-2015.)
(𝜑𝐶 ∈ (Met‘𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (Met‘𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ+)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑋𝑦𝑋)) → (𝑥𝐶𝑦) ≤ (𝑅 · (𝑥𝐷𝑦)))       (𝜑 → (CauFil‘𝐷) ⊆ (CauFil‘𝐶))

Theoremequivcau 22906* If the metric 𝐷 is "strongly finer" than 𝐶 (meaning that there is a positive real constant 𝑅 such that 𝐶(𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑅 · 𝐷(𝑥, 𝑦)), all the 𝐷-Cauchy sequences are also 𝐶-Cauchy. (Using this theorem twice in each direction states that if two metrics are strongly equivalent, then they have the same Cauchy sequences.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Sep-2015.)
(𝜑𝐶 ∈ (Met‘𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (Met‘𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ+)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑋𝑦𝑋)) → (𝑥𝐶𝑦) ≤ (𝑅 · (𝑥𝐷𝑦)))       (𝜑 → (Cau‘𝐷) ⊆ (Cau‘𝐶))

Theoremlmle 22907* If the distance from each member of a converging sequence to a given point is less than or equal to a given amount, so is the convergence value. (Contributed by NM, 23-Dec-2007.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 1-May-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (∞Met‘𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐹(⇝𝑡𝐽)𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑄𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ*)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝑄𝐷(𝐹𝑘)) ≤ 𝑅)       (𝜑 → (𝑄𝐷𝑃) ≤ 𝑅)

Theoremnglmle 22908* If the norm of each member of a converging sequence is less than or equal to a given amount, so is the norm of the convergence value. (Contributed by NM, 25-Dec-2007.) (Revised by AV, 16-Oct-2021.)
𝑋 = (Base‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = ((dist‘𝐺) ↾ (𝑋 × 𝑋))    &   𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)    &   𝑁 = (norm‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ NrmGrp)    &   (𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐹(⇝𝑡𝐽)𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ*)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ ℕ) → (𝑁‘(𝐹𝑘)) ≤ 𝑅)       (𝜑 → (𝑁𝑃) ≤ 𝑅)

Theoremlmclim 22909 Relate a limit on the metric space of complex numbers to our complex number limit notation. (Contributed by NM, 9-Dec-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 1-May-2014.)
𝐽 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)       ((𝑀 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑍 ⊆ dom 𝐹) → (𝐹(⇝𝑡𝐽)𝑃 ↔ (𝐹 ∈ (ℂ ↑pm ℂ) ∧ 𝐹𝑃)))

Theoremlmclimf 22910 Relate a limit on the metric space of complex numbers to our complex number limit notation. (Contributed by NM, 24-Jul-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 1-May-2014.)
𝐽 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)       ((𝑀 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐹:𝑍⟶ℂ) → (𝐹(⇝𝑡𝐽)𝑃𝐹𝑃))

Theoremmetelcls 22911* A point belongs to the closure of a subset iff there is a sequence in the subset converging to it. Theorem 1.4-6(a) of [Kreyszig] p. 30. This proof uses countable choice ax-cc 9140. The statement can be generalized to first-countable spaces, not just metrizable spaces. (Contributed by NM, 8-Nov-2007.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 1-May-2015.)
𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (∞Met‘𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑋)       (𝜑 → (𝑃 ∈ ((cls‘𝐽)‘𝑆) ↔ ∃𝑓(𝑓:ℕ⟶𝑆𝑓(⇝𝑡𝐽)𝑃)))

Theoremmetcld 22912* A subset of a metric space is closed iff every convergent sequence on it converges to a point in the subset. Theorem 1.4-6(b) of [Kreyszig] p. 30. (Contributed by NM, 11-Nov-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 1-May-2014.)
𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)       ((𝐷 ∈ (∞Met‘𝑋) ∧ 𝑆𝑋) → (𝑆 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽) ↔ ∀𝑥𝑓((𝑓:ℕ⟶𝑆𝑓(⇝𝑡𝐽)𝑥) → 𝑥𝑆)))

Theoremmetcld2 22913 A subset of a metric space is closed iff every convergent sequence on it converges to a point in the subset. Theorem 1.4-6(b) of [Kreyszig] p. 30. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-May-2014.)
𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)       ((𝐷 ∈ (∞Met‘𝑋) ∧ 𝑆𝑋) → (𝑆 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽) ↔ ((⇝𝑡𝐽) “ (𝑆𝑚 ℕ)) ⊆ 𝑆))

Theoremcaubl 22914* Sufficient condition to ensure a sequence of nested balls is Cauchy. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Jan-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 1-May-2014.)
(𝜑𝐷 ∈ (∞Met‘𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶(𝑋 × ℝ+))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ((ball‘𝐷)‘(𝐹‘(𝑛 + 1))) ⊆ ((ball‘𝐷)‘(𝐹𝑛)))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑟 ∈ ℝ+𝑛 ∈ ℕ (2nd ‘(𝐹𝑛)) < 𝑟)       (𝜑 → (1st𝐹) ∈ (Cau‘𝐷))

Theoremcaublcls 22915* The convergent point of a sequence of nested balls is in the closures of any of the balls (i.e. it is in the intersection of the closures). Indeed, it is the only point in the intersection because a metric space is Hausdorff, but we don't prove this here. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Jan-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 1-May-2014.)
(𝜑𝐷 ∈ (∞Met‘𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶(𝑋 × ℝ+))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ((ball‘𝐷)‘(𝐹‘(𝑛 + 1))) ⊆ ((ball‘𝐷)‘(𝐹𝑛)))    &   𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)       ((𝜑 ∧ (1st𝐹)(⇝𝑡𝐽)𝑃𝐴 ∈ ℕ) → 𝑃 ∈ ((cls‘𝐽)‘((ball‘𝐷)‘(𝐹𝐴))))

Theoremmetcnp4 22916* Two ways to say a mapping from metric 𝐶 to metric 𝐷 is continuous at point 𝑃. Theorem 14-4.3 of [Gleason] p. 240. (Contributed by NM, 17-May-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 4-May-2014.)
𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐶)    &   𝐾 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (∞Met‘𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (∞Met‘𝑌))    &   (𝜑𝑃𝑋)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 ∈ ((𝐽 CnP 𝐾)‘𝑃) ↔ (𝐹:𝑋𝑌 ∧ ∀𝑓((𝑓:ℕ⟶𝑋𝑓(⇝𝑡𝐽)𝑃) → (𝐹𝑓)(⇝𝑡𝐾)(𝐹𝑃)))))

Theoremmetcn4 22917* Two ways to say a mapping from metric 𝐶 to metric 𝐷 is continuous. Theorem 10.3 of [Munkres] p. 128. (Contributed by NM, 13-Jun-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 4-May-2014.)
𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐶)    &   𝐾 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (∞Met‘𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (∞Met‘𝑌))    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑋𝑌)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 ∈ (𝐽 Cn 𝐾) ↔ ∀𝑓(𝑓:ℕ⟶𝑋 → ∀𝑥(𝑓(⇝𝑡𝐽)𝑥 → (𝐹𝑓)(⇝𝑡𝐾)(𝐹𝑥)))))

Theoremiscmet3i 22918* Properties that determine a complete metric space. (Contributed by NM, 15-Apr-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-May-2014.)
𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)    &   𝐷 ∈ (Met‘𝑋)    &   ((𝑓 ∈ (Cau‘𝐷) ∧ 𝑓:ℕ⟶𝑋) → 𝑓 ∈ dom (⇝𝑡𝐽))       𝐷 ∈ (CMet‘𝑋)

Theoremlmcau 22919 Every convergent sequence in a metric space is a Cauchy sequence. Theorem 1.4-5 of [Kreyszig] p. 28. (Contributed by NM, 29-Jan-2008.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 5-May-2014.)
𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)       (𝐷 ∈ (∞Met‘𝑋) → dom (⇝𝑡𝐽) ⊆ (Cau‘𝐷))

Theoremflimcfil 22920 Every convergent filter in a metric space is a Cauchy filter. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)       ((𝐷 ∈ (∞Met‘𝑋) ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝐽 fLim 𝐹)) → 𝐹 ∈ (CauFil‘𝐷))

Theoremcmetss 22921 A subspace of a complete metric space is complete iff it is closed in the parent space. Theorem 1.4-7 of [Kreyszig] p. 30. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jan-2008.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)       (𝐷 ∈ (CMet‘𝑋) → ((𝐷 ↾ (𝑌 × 𝑌)) ∈ (CMet‘𝑌) ↔ 𝑌 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽)))

Theoremequivcmet 22922* If two metrics are strongly equivalent, one is complete iff the other is. Unlike equivcau 22906, metss2 22127, this theorem does not have a one-directional form - it is possible for a metric 𝐶 that is strongly finer than the complete metric 𝐷 to be incomplete and vice versa. Consider 𝐷 = the metric on induced by the usual homeomorphism from (0, 1) against the usual metric 𝐶 on and against the discrete metric 𝐸 on . Then both 𝐶 and 𝐸 are complete but 𝐷 is not, and 𝐶 is strongly finer than 𝐷, which is strongly finer than 𝐸. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Sep-2015.)
(𝜑𝐶 ∈ (Met‘𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (Met‘𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ ℝ+)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑋𝑦𝑋)) → (𝑥𝐶𝑦) ≤ (𝑅 · (𝑥𝐷𝑦)))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑋𝑦𝑋)) → (𝑥𝐷𝑦) ≤ (𝑆 · (𝑥𝐶𝑦)))       (𝜑 → (𝐶 ∈ (CMet‘𝑋) ↔ 𝐷 ∈ (CMet‘𝑋)))

Theoremrelcmpcmet 22923* If 𝐷 is a metric space such that all the balls of some fixed size are relatively compact, then 𝐷 is complete. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (Met‘𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ+)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → (𝐽t ((cls‘𝐽)‘(𝑥(ball‘𝐷)𝑅))) ∈ Comp)       (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (CMet‘𝑋))

Theoremcmpcmet 22924 A compact metric space is complete. One half of heibor 32790. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (Met‘𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)       (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (CMet‘𝑋))

Theoremcfilucfil3 22925 Given a metric 𝐷 and a uniform structure generated by that metric, Cauchy filter bases on that uniform structure are exactly the Cauchy filters for the metric. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Dec-2017.) (Revised by Thierry Arnoux, 11-Feb-2018.)
((𝑋 ≠ ∅ ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (∞Met‘𝑋)) → ((𝐶 ∈ (Fil‘𝑋) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (CauFilu‘(metUnif‘𝐷))) ↔ 𝐶 ∈ (CauFil‘𝐷)))

Theoremcfilucfil4 22926 Given a metric 𝐷 and a uniform structure generated by that metric, Cauchy filter bases on that uniform structure are exactly the Cauchy filters for the metric. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Dec-2017.) (Revised by Thierry Arnoux, 11-Feb-2018.)
((𝑋 ≠ ∅ ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (∞Met‘𝑋) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (Fil‘𝑋)) → (𝐶 ∈ (CauFilu‘(metUnif‘𝐷)) ↔ 𝐶 ∈ (CauFil‘𝐷)))

Theoremcncmet 22927 The set of complex numbers is a complete metric space under the absolute value metric. (Contributed by NM, 20-Dec-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
𝐷 = (abs ∘ − )       𝐷 ∈ (CMet‘ℂ)

Theoremrecmet 22928 The real numbers are a complete metric space. (Contributed by Jeff Madsen, 2-Sep-2009.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 12-Sep-2015.)
((abs ∘ − ) ↾ (ℝ × ℝ)) ∈ (CMet‘ℝ)

12.5.6  Baire's Category Theorem

Theorembcthlem1 22929* Lemma for bcth 22934. Substitutions for the function 𝐹. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jan-2014.)
𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (CMet‘𝑋))    &   𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ, 𝑧 ∈ (𝑋 × ℝ+) ↦ {⟨𝑥, 𝑟⟩ ∣ ((𝑥𝑋𝑟 ∈ ℝ+) ∧ (𝑟 < (1 / 𝑘) ∧ ((cls‘𝐽)‘(𝑥(ball‘𝐷)𝑟)) ⊆ (((ball‘𝐷)‘𝑧) ∖ (𝑀𝑘))))})       ((𝜑 ∧ (𝐴 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝑋 × ℝ+))) → (𝐶 ∈ (𝐴𝐹𝐵) ↔ (𝐶 ∈ (𝑋 × ℝ+) ∧ (2nd𝐶) < (1 / 𝐴) ∧ ((cls‘𝐽)‘((ball‘𝐷)‘𝐶)) ⊆ (((ball‘𝐷)‘𝐵) ∖ (𝑀𝐴)))))

Theorembcthlem2 22930* Lemma for bcth 22934. The balls in the sequence form an inclusion chain. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Jan-2014.)
𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (CMet‘𝑋))    &   𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ, 𝑧 ∈ (𝑋 × ℝ+) ↦ {⟨𝑥, 𝑟⟩ ∣ ((𝑥𝑋𝑟 ∈ ℝ+) ∧ (𝑟 < (1 / 𝑘) ∧ ((cls‘𝐽)‘(𝑥(ball‘𝐷)𝑟)) ⊆ (((ball‘𝐷)‘𝑧) ∖ (𝑀𝑘))))})    &   (𝜑𝑀:ℕ⟶(Clsd‘𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑔:ℕ⟶(𝑋 × ℝ+))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑔‘1) = ⟨𝐶, 𝑅⟩)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑘 ∈ ℕ (𝑔‘(𝑘 + 1)) ∈ (𝑘𝐹(𝑔𝑘)))       (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ((ball‘𝐷)‘(𝑔‘(𝑛 + 1))) ⊆ ((ball‘𝐷)‘(𝑔𝑛)))

Theorembcthlem3 22931* Lemma for bcth 22934. The limit point of the centers in the sequence is in the intersection of every ball in the sequence. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Jan-2014.)
𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (CMet‘𝑋))    &   𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ, 𝑧 ∈ (𝑋 × ℝ+) ↦ {⟨𝑥, 𝑟⟩ ∣ ((𝑥𝑋𝑟 ∈ ℝ+) ∧ (𝑟 < (1 / 𝑘) ∧ ((cls‘𝐽)‘(𝑥(ball‘𝐷)𝑟)) ⊆ (((ball‘𝐷)‘𝑧) ∖ (𝑀𝑘))))})    &   (𝜑𝑀:ℕ⟶(Clsd‘𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑔:ℕ⟶(𝑋 × ℝ+))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑔‘1) = ⟨𝐶, 𝑅⟩)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑘 ∈ ℕ (𝑔‘(𝑘 + 1)) ∈ (𝑘𝐹(𝑔𝑘)))       ((𝜑 ∧ (1st𝑔)(⇝𝑡𝐽)𝑥𝐴 ∈ ℕ) → 𝑥 ∈ ((ball‘𝐷)‘(𝑔𝐴)))

Theorembcthlem4 22932* Lemma for bcth 22934. Given any open ball (𝐶(ball‘𝐷)𝑅) as starting point (and in particular, a ball in int( ran 𝑀)), the limit point 𝑥 of the centers of the induced sequence of balls 𝑔 is outside ran 𝑀. Note that a set 𝐴 has empty interior iff every nonempty open set 𝑈 contains points outside 𝐴, i.e. (𝑈𝐴) ≠ ∅. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Jan-2014.)
𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (CMet‘𝑋))    &   𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ, 𝑧 ∈ (𝑋 × ℝ+) ↦ {⟨𝑥, 𝑟⟩ ∣ ((𝑥𝑋𝑟 ∈ ℝ+) ∧ (𝑟 < (1 / 𝑘) ∧ ((cls‘𝐽)‘(𝑥(ball‘𝐷)𝑟)) ⊆ (((ball‘𝐷)‘𝑧) ∖ (𝑀𝑘))))})    &   (𝜑𝑀:ℕ⟶(Clsd‘𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑔:ℕ⟶(𝑋 × ℝ+))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑔‘1) = ⟨𝐶, 𝑅⟩)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑘 ∈ ℕ (𝑔‘(𝑘 + 1)) ∈ (𝑘𝐹(𝑔𝑘)))       (𝜑 → ((𝐶(ball‘𝐷)𝑅) ∖ ran 𝑀) ≠ ∅)

Theorembcthlem5 22933* Lemma for bcth 22934. The proof makes essential use of the Axiom of Dependent Choice axdc4uz 12645, which in the form used here accepts a "selection" function 𝐹 from each element of 𝐾 to a nonempty subset of 𝐾, and the result function 𝑔 maps 𝑔(𝑛 + 1) to an element of 𝐹(𝑛, 𝑔(𝑛)). The trick here is thus in the choice of 𝐹 and 𝐾: we let 𝐾 be the set of all tagged nonempty open sets (tagged here meaning that we have a point and an open set, in an ordered pair), and 𝐹(𝑘, ⟨𝑥, 𝑧⟩) gives the set of all balls of size less than 1 / 𝑘, tagged by their centers, whose closures fit within the given open set 𝑧 and miss 𝑀(𝑘).

Since 𝑀(𝑘) is closed, 𝑧𝑀(𝑘) is open and also nonempty, since 𝑧 is nonempty and 𝑀(𝑘) has empty interior. Then there is some ball contained in it, and hence our function 𝐹 is valid (it never maps to the empty set). Now starting at a point in the interior of ran 𝑀, DC gives us the function 𝑔 all whose elements are constrained by 𝐹 acting on the previous value. (This is all proven in this lemma.) Now 𝑔 is a sequence of tagged open balls, forming an inclusion chain (see bcthlem2 22930) and whose sizes tend to zero, since they are bounded above by 1 / 𝑘. Thus, the centers of these balls form a Cauchy sequence, and converge to a point 𝑥 (see bcthlem4 22932). Since the inclusion chain also ensures the closure of each ball is in the previous ball, the point 𝑥 must be in all these balls (see bcthlem3 22931) and hence misses each 𝑀(𝑘), contradicting the fact that 𝑥 is in the interior of ran 𝑀 (which was the starting point). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Jan-2014.)

𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (CMet‘𝑋))    &   𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ, 𝑧 ∈ (𝑋 × ℝ+) ↦ {⟨𝑥, 𝑟⟩ ∣ ((𝑥𝑋𝑟 ∈ ℝ+) ∧ (𝑟 < (1 / 𝑘) ∧ ((cls‘𝐽)‘(𝑥(ball‘𝐷)𝑟)) ⊆ (((ball‘𝐷)‘𝑧) ∖ (𝑀𝑘))))})    &   (𝜑𝑀:ℕ⟶(Clsd‘𝐽))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑘 ∈ ℕ ((int‘𝐽)‘(𝑀𝑘)) = ∅)       (𝜑 → ((int‘𝐽)‘ ran 𝑀) = ∅)

Theorembcth 22934* Baire's Category Theorem. If a nonempty metric space is complete, it is nonmeager in itself. In other words, no open set in the metric space can be the countable union of rare closed subsets (where rare means having a closure with empty interior), so some subset 𝑀𝑘 must have a nonempty interior. Theorem 4.7-2 of [Kreyszig] p. 247. (The terminology "meager" and "nonmeager" is used by Kreyszig to replace Baire's "of the first category" and "of the second category." The latter terms are going out of favor to avoid confusion with category theory.) See bcthlem5 22933 for an overview of the proof. (Contributed by NM, 28-Oct-2007.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 6-Jan-2014.)
𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)       ((𝐷 ∈ (CMet‘𝑋) ∧ 𝑀:ℕ⟶(Clsd‘𝐽) ∧ ((int‘𝐽)‘ ran 𝑀) ≠ ∅) → ∃𝑘 ∈ ℕ ((int‘𝐽)‘(𝑀𝑘)) ≠ ∅)

Theorembcth2 22935* Baire's Category Theorem, version 2: If countably many closed sets cover 𝑋, then one of them has an interior. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Jan-2014.)
𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)       (((𝐷 ∈ (CMet‘𝑋) ∧ 𝑋 ≠ ∅) ∧ (𝑀:ℕ⟶(Clsd‘𝐽) ∧ ran 𝑀 = 𝑋)) → ∃𝑘 ∈ ℕ ((int‘𝐽)‘(𝑀𝑘)) ≠ ∅)

Theorembcth3 22936* Baire's Category Theorem, version 3: The intersection of countably many dense open sets is dense. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Jan-2014.)
𝐽 = (MetOpen‘𝐷)       ((𝐷 ∈ (CMet‘𝑋) ∧ 𝑀:ℕ⟶𝐽 ∧ ∀𝑘 ∈ ℕ ((cls‘𝐽)‘(𝑀𝑘)) = 𝑋) → ((cls‘𝐽)‘ ran 𝑀) = 𝑋)

12.5.7  Banach spaces and complex Hilbert spaces

Syntaxccms 22937 Extend class notation with the class of all complete normed groups.
class CMetSp

Syntaxcbn 22938 Extend class notation with the class of all Banach spaces.
class Ban

Syntaxchl 22939 Extend class notation with the class of all complex Hilbert spaces.
class ℂHil

Definitiondf-cms 22940* Define the class of all complete metric spaces. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
CMetSp = {𝑤 ∈ MetSp ∣ [(Base‘𝑤) / 𝑏]((dist‘𝑤) ↾ (𝑏 × 𝑏)) ∈ (CMet‘𝑏)}

Definitiondf-bn 22941 Define the class of all Banach spaces. A Banach space is a normed vector space such that both the vector space and the scalar field are complete under their respective norm-induced metrics. (Contributed by NM, 5-Dec-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
Ban = {𝑤 ∈ (NrmVec ∩ CMetSp) ∣ (Scalar‘𝑤) ∈ CMetSp}

Definitiondf-hl 22942 Define the class of all complex Hilbert spaces. A complex Hilbert space is a Banach space which is also an inner product space over the complex numbers. (Contributed by Steve Rodriguez, 28-Apr-2007.)
ℂHil = (Ban ∩ ℂPreHil)

Theoremisbn 22943 A Banach space is a normed vector space with a complete induced metric. (Contributed by NM, 5-Dec-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
𝐹 = (Scalar‘𝑊)       (𝑊 ∈ Ban ↔ (𝑊 ∈ NrmVec ∧ 𝑊 ∈ CMetSp ∧ 𝐹 ∈ CMetSp))

Theorembnsca 22944 The scalar field of a complex Banach space is complete. (Contributed by NM, 8-Sep-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
𝐹 = (Scalar‘𝑊)       (𝑊 ∈ Ban → 𝐹 ∈ CMetSp)

Theorembnnvc 22945 A Banach space is a normed vector space. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
(𝑊 ∈ Ban → 𝑊 ∈ NrmVec)

Theorembnnlm 22946 A Banach space is a normed module. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
(𝑊 ∈ Ban → 𝑊 ∈ NrmMod)

Theorembnngp 22947 A Banach space is a normed group. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
(𝑊 ∈ Ban → 𝑊 ∈ NrmGrp)

Theorembnlmod 22948 A Banach space is a left module. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
(𝑊 ∈ Ban → 𝑊 ∈ LMod)

Theorembncms 22949 A Banach space is a complete metric space. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
(𝑊 ∈ Ban → 𝑊 ∈ CMetSp)

Theoremiscms 22950 A complete metric space is a metric space with a complete metric. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
𝑋 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝐷 = ((dist‘𝑀) ↾ (𝑋 × 𝑋))       (𝑀 ∈ CMetSp ↔ (𝑀 ∈ MetSp ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (CMet‘𝑋)))

Theoremcmscmet 22951 The induced metric on a complete normed group is complete. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
𝑋 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝐷 = ((dist‘𝑀) ↾ (𝑋 × 𝑋))       (𝑀 ∈ CMetSp → 𝐷 ∈ (CMet‘𝑋))

Theorembncmet 22952 The induced metric on Banach space is complete. (Contributed by NM, 8-Sep-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
𝑋 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝐷 = ((dist‘𝑀) ↾ (𝑋 × 𝑋))       (𝑀 ∈ Ban → 𝐷 ∈ (CMet‘𝑋))

Theoremcmsms 22953 A complete metric space is a metric space. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
(𝐺 ∈ CMetSp → 𝐺 ∈ MetSp)

Theoremcmspropd 22954 Property deduction for a complete metric space. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
(𝜑𝐵 = (Base‘𝐾))    &   (𝜑𝐵 = (Base‘𝐿))    &   (𝜑 → ((dist‘𝐾) ↾ (𝐵 × 𝐵)) = ((dist‘𝐿) ↾ (𝐵 × 𝐵)))    &   (𝜑 → (TopOpen‘𝐾) = (TopOpen‘𝐿))       (𝜑 → (𝐾 ∈ CMetSp ↔ 𝐿 ∈ CMetSp))

Theoremcmsss 22955 The restriction of a complete metric space is complete iff it is closed. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
𝐾 = (𝑀s 𝐴)    &   𝑋 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝐽 = (TopOpen‘𝑀)       ((𝑀 ∈ CMetSp ∧ 𝐴𝑋) → (𝐾 ∈ CMetSp ↔ 𝐴 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽)))

Theoremlssbn 22956 A subspace of a Banach space is a Banach space iff it is closed. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
𝑋 = (𝑊s 𝑈)    &   𝑆 = (LSubSp‘𝑊)    &   𝐽 = (TopOpen‘𝑊)       ((𝑊 ∈ Ban ∧ 𝑈𝑆) → (𝑋 ∈ Ban ↔ 𝑈 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽)))

Theoremcmetcusp1 22957 If the uniform set of a complete metric space is the uniform structure generated by its metric, then it is a complete uniform space. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Dec-2017.)
𝑋 = (Base‘𝐹)    &   𝐷 = ((dist‘𝐹) ↾ (𝑋 × 𝑋))    &   𝑈 = (UnifSt‘𝐹)       ((𝑋 ≠ ∅ ∧ 𝐹 ∈ CMetSp ∧ 𝑈 = (metUnif‘𝐷)) → 𝐹 ∈ CUnifSp)

Theoremcmetcusp 22958 The uniform space generated by a complete metric is a complete uniform space. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 5-Dec-2017.)
((𝑋 ≠ ∅ ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (CMet‘𝑋)) → (toUnifSp‘(metUnif‘𝐷)) ∈ CUnifSp)

Theoremcncms 22959 The field of complex numbers is a complete metric space. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
fld ∈ CMetSp

Theoremcnflduss 22960 The uniform structure of the complex numbers. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 17-Dec-2017.) (Revised by Thierry Arnoux, 11-Mar-2018.)
𝑈 = (UnifSt‘ℂfld)       𝑈 = (metUnif‘(abs ∘ − ))

Theoremcnfldcusp 22961 The field of complex numbers is a complete uniform space. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 17-Dec-2017.)
fld ∈ CUnifSp

Theoremresscdrg 22962 The real numbers are a subset of any complete subfield in the complex numbers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
𝐹 = (ℂflds 𝐾)       ((𝐾 ∈ (SubRing‘ℂfld) ∧ 𝐹 ∈ DivRing ∧ 𝐹 ∈ CMetSp) → ℝ ⊆ 𝐾)

Theoremcncdrg 22963 The only complete subfields of the complex numbers are and . (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
𝐹 = (ℂflds 𝐾)       ((𝐾 ∈ (SubRing‘ℂfld) ∧ 𝐹 ∈ DivRing ∧ 𝐹 ∈ CMetSp) → 𝐾 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})

Theoremsrabn 22964 The subring algebra over a complete normed ring is a Banach space iff the subring is a closed division ring. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
𝐴 = ((subringAlg ‘𝑊)‘𝑆)    &   𝐽 = (TopOpen‘𝑊)       ((𝑊 ∈ NrmRing ∧ 𝑊 ∈ CMetSp ∧ 𝑆 ∈ (SubRing‘𝑊)) → (𝐴 ∈ Ban ↔ (𝑆 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽) ∧ (𝑊s 𝑆) ∈ DivRing)))

Theoremrlmbn 22965 The ring module over a complete normed division ring is a Banach space. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
((𝑅 ∈ NrmRing ∧ 𝑅 ∈ DivRing ∧ 𝑅 ∈ CMetSp) → (ringLMod‘𝑅) ∈ Ban)

Theoremishl 22966 The predicate "is a complex Hilbert space." A Hilbert space is a Banach space which is also an inner product space, i.e. whose norm satisfies the parallelogram law. (Contributed by Steve Rodriguez, 28-Apr-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
(𝑊 ∈ ℂHil ↔ (𝑊 ∈ Ban ∧ 𝑊 ∈ ℂPreHil))

Theoremhlbn 22967 Every complex Hilbert space is a Banach space. (Contributed by Steve Rodriguez, 28-Apr-2007.)
(𝑊 ∈ ℂHil → 𝑊 ∈ Ban)

Theoremhlcph 22968 Every complex Hilbert space is a complex pre-Hilbert space. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
(𝑊 ∈ ℂHil → 𝑊 ∈ ℂPreHil)

Theoremhlphl 22969 Every complex Hilbert space is an inner product space (also called a pre-Hilbert space). (Contributed by NM, 28-Apr-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
(𝑊 ∈ ℂHil → 𝑊 ∈ PreHil)

Theoremhlcms 22970 Every complex Hilbert space is a complete metric space. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 17-Oct-2015.)
(𝑊 ∈ ℂHil → 𝑊 ∈ CMetSp)

Theoremhlprlem 22971 Lemma for hlpr 22973. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
𝐹 = (Scalar‘𝑊)    &   𝐾 = (Base‘𝐹)       (𝑊 ∈ ℂHil → (𝐾 ∈ (SubRing‘ℂfld) ∧ (ℂflds 𝐾) ∈ DivRing ∧ (ℂflds 𝐾) ∈ CMetSp))

Theoremhlress 22972 The scalar field of a complex Hilbert space contains . (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Oct-2015.)
𝐹 = (Scalar‘𝑊)    &   𝐾 = (Base‘𝐹)       (𝑊 ∈ ℂHil → ℝ ⊆ 𝐾)

Theoremhlpr 22973 The scalar field of a complex Hilbert space is either or . (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
𝐹 = (Scalar‘𝑊)    &   𝐾 = (Base‘𝐹)       (𝑊 ∈ ℂHil → 𝐾 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})

Theoremishl2 22974 A Hilbert space is a complete complex pre-Hilbert space over or . (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2015.)
𝐹 = (Scalar‘𝑊)    &   𝐾 = (Base‘𝐹)       (𝑊 ∈ ℂHil ↔ (𝑊 ∈ CMetSp ∧ 𝑊 ∈ ℂPreHil ∧ 𝐾 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ}))

12.5.7.1  The complete ordered field of the real numbers

Theoremretopn 22975 The topology of the real numbers. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 30-Jun-2019.)
(topGen‘ran (,)) = (TopOpen‘ℝfld)

Theoremrecms 22976 The real numbers form a complete metric space. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 1-Nov-2017.)
fld ∈ CMetSp

Theoremreust 22977 The Uniform structure of the real numbers. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Feb-2018.)
(UnifSt‘ℝfld) = (metUnif‘((dist‘ℝfld) ↾ (ℝ × ℝ)))

Theoremrecusp 22978 The real numbers form a complete uniform space. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 17-Dec-2017.)
fld ∈ CUnifSp

12.5.8  Euclidean spaces

Syntaxcrrx 22979 Extend class notation with generalized real Euclidean spaces.
class ℝ^

Syntaxcehl 22980 Extend class notation with real Euclidean spaces.
class 𝔼hil

Definitiondf-rrx 22981 Define the function associating with a set the free real vector space on that set, equipped with the natural inner product. This is the direct sum of copies of the field of real numbers indexed by that set. We call it here a "generalized real Euclidean space", but note that it need not be complete (for instance if the given set is infinite countable). (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 16-Jun-2019.)
ℝ^ = (𝑖 ∈ V ↦ (toℂHil‘(ℝfld freeLMod 𝑖)))

Definitiondf-ehl 22982 Define a function generating the real Euclidean spaces of finite dimension. The case 𝑛 = 0 corresponds to a space of dimension 0, that is, limited to a neutral element. Members of this family of spaces are Hilbert spaces, as shown in - ehlhl . (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 16-Jun-2019.)
𝔼hil = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (ℝ^‘(1...𝑛)))

Theoremrrxval 22983 Value of the generalized Euclidean space. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 16-Jun-2019.)
𝐻 = (ℝ^‘𝐼)       (𝐼𝑉𝐻 = (toℂHil‘(ℝfld freeLMod 𝐼)))

Theoremrrxbase 22984* The base of the generalized real Euclidean space is the set of functions with finite support. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 16-Jun-2019.) (Proof shortened by AV, 22-Jul-2019.)
𝐻 = (ℝ^‘𝐼)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝐻)       (𝐼𝑉𝐵 = {𝑓 ∈ (ℝ ↑𝑚 𝐼) ∣ 𝑓 finSupp 0})

Theoremrrxprds 22985 Expand the definition of the generalized real Euclidean spaces. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 16-Jun-2019.)
𝐻 = (ℝ^‘𝐼)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝐻)       (𝐼𝑉𝐻 = (toℂHil‘((ℝfldXs(𝐼 × {((subringAlg ‘ℝfld)‘ℝ)})) ↾s 𝐵)))

Theoremrrxip 22986* The inner product of the generalized real Euclidean spaces. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 16-Jun-2019.)
𝐻 = (ℝ^‘𝐼)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝐻)       (𝐼𝑉 → (𝑓 ∈ (ℝ ↑𝑚 𝐼), 𝑔 ∈ (ℝ ↑𝑚 𝐼) ↦ (ℝfld Σg (𝑥𝐼 ↦ ((𝑓𝑥) · (𝑔𝑥))))) = (·𝑖𝐻))

Theoremrrxnm 22987* The norm of the generalized real Euclidean spaces. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 16-Jun-2019.)
𝐻 = (ℝ^‘𝐼)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝐻)       (𝐼𝑉 → (𝑓𝐵 ↦ (√‘(ℝfld Σg (𝑥𝐼 ↦ ((𝑓𝑥)↑2))))) = (norm‘𝐻))

Theoremrrxcph 22988 Generalized Euclidean real spaces are pre-Hilbert spaces. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Jun-2019.) (Proof shortened by AV, 22-Jul-2019.)
𝐻 = (ℝ^‘𝐼)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝐻)       (𝐼𝑉𝐻 ∈ ℂPreHil)

Theoremrrxds 22989* The distance over generalized Euclidean spaces. Compare with df-rrn 32795. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 20-Jun-2019.) (Proof shortened by AV, 20-Jul-2019.)
𝐻 = (ℝ^‘𝐼)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝐻)       (𝐼𝑉 → (𝑓𝐵, 𝑔𝐵 ↦ (√‘(ℝfld Σg (𝑥𝐼 ↦ (((𝑓𝑥) − (𝑔𝑥))↑2))))) = (dist‘𝐻))

Theoremcsbren 22990* Cauchy-Schwarz-Bunjakovsky inequality for R^n. (Contributed by Jeff Madsen, 2-Sep-2009.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 4-Jun-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐶 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (Σ𝑘𝐴 (𝐵 · 𝐶)↑2) ≤ (Σ𝑘𝐴 (𝐵↑2) · Σ𝑘𝐴 (𝐶↑2)))

Theoremtrirn 22991* Triangle inequality in R^n. (Contributed by Jeff Madsen, 2-Sep-2009.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 4-Jun-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐶 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (√‘Σ𝑘𝐴 ((𝐵 + 𝐶)↑2)) ≤ ((√‘Σ𝑘𝐴 (𝐵↑2)) + (√‘Σ𝑘𝐴 (𝐶↑2))))

Theoremrrxf 22992* Euclidean vectors as functions. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 7-Jul-2019.)
𝑋 = { ∈ (ℝ ↑𝑚 𝐼) ∣ finSupp 0}    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑋)       (𝜑𝐹:𝐼⟶ℝ)

Theoremrrxfsupp 22993* Euclidean vectors are of finite support. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 7-Jul-2019.)
𝑋 = { ∈ (ℝ ↑𝑚 𝐼) ∣ finSupp 0}    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑋)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 supp 0) ∈ Fin)

Theoremrrxsuppss 22994* Support of Euclidean vectors. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 7-Jul-2019.)
𝑋 = { ∈ (ℝ ↑𝑚 𝐼) ∣ finSupp 0}    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑋)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 supp 0) ⊆ 𝐼)

Theoremrrxmvallem 22995* Support of the function used for building the distance . (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 30-Jun-2019.)
𝑋 = { ∈ (ℝ ↑𝑚 𝐼) ∣ finSupp 0}       ((𝐼𝑉𝐹𝑋𝐺𝑋) → ((𝑘𝐼 ↦ (((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐺𝑘))↑2)) supp 0) ⊆ ((𝐹 supp 0) ∪ (𝐺 supp 0)))

Theoremrrxmval 22996* The value of the Euclidean metric. Compare with rrnmval 32797. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 30-Jun-2019.)
𝑋 = { ∈ (ℝ ↑𝑚 𝐼) ∣ finSupp 0}    &   𝐷 = (dist‘(ℝ^‘𝐼))       ((𝐼𝑉𝐹𝑋𝐺𝑋) → (𝐹𝐷𝐺) = (√‘Σ𝑘 ∈ ((𝐹 supp 0) ∪ (𝐺 supp 0))(((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐺𝑘))↑2)))

Theoremrrxmfval 22997* The value of the Euclidean metric. Compare with rrnval 32796. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 30-Jun-2019.)
𝑋 = { ∈ (ℝ ↑𝑚 𝐼) ∣ finSupp 0}    &   𝐷 = (dist‘(ℝ^‘𝐼))       (𝐼𝑉𝐷 = (𝑓𝑋, 𝑔𝑋 ↦ (√‘Σ𝑘 ∈ ((𝑓 supp 0) ∪ (𝑔 supp 0))(((𝑓𝑘) − (𝑔𝑘))↑2))))

Theoremrrxmetlem 22998* Lemma for rrxmet 22999. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 5-Jul-2019.)
𝑋 = { ∈ (ℝ ↑𝑚 𝐼) ∣ finSupp 0}    &   𝐷 = (dist‘(ℝ^‘𝐼))    &   (𝜑𝐼𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑 → ((𝐹 supp 0) ∪ (𝐺 supp 0)) ⊆ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘 ∈ ((𝐹 supp 0) ∪ (𝐺 supp 0))(((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐺𝑘))↑2) = Σ𝑘𝐴 (((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐺𝑘))↑2))

Theoremrrxmet 22999* Euclidean space is a metric space. (Contributed by Jeff Madsen, 2-Sep-2009.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 5-Jun-2014.) (Revised by Thierry Arnoux, 30-Jun-2019.)
𝑋 = { ∈ (ℝ ↑𝑚 𝐼) ∣ finSupp 0}    &   𝐷 = (dist‘(ℝ^‘𝐼))       (𝐼𝑉𝐷 ∈ (Met‘𝑋))

Theoremrrxdstprj1 23000* The distance between two points in Euclidean space is greater than the distance between the projections onto one coordinate. (Contributed by Jeff Madsen, 2-Sep-2009.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Sep-2015.) (Revised by Thierry Arnoux, 7-Jul-2019.)
𝑋 = { ∈ (ℝ ↑𝑚 𝐼) ∣ finSupp 0}    &   𝐷 = (dist‘(ℝ^‘𝐼))    &   𝑀 = ((abs ∘ − ) ↾ (ℝ × ℝ))       (((𝐼𝑉𝐴𝐼) ∧ (𝐹𝑋𝐺𝑋)) → ((𝐹𝐴)𝑀(𝐺𝐴)) ≤ (𝐹𝐷𝐺))

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