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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 4601-4700   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremeqnbrtrd 4601 Substitution of equal classes into the negation of a binary relation. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 3-Jan-2021.)
(𝜑𝐴 = 𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 𝐵𝑅𝐶)       (𝜑 → ¬ 𝐴𝑅𝐶)

Theoremnbrne1 4602 Two classes are different if they don't have the same relationship to a third class. (Contributed by NM, 3-Jun-2012.)
((𝐴𝑅𝐵 ∧ ¬ 𝐴𝑅𝐶) → 𝐵𝐶)

Theoremnbrne2 4603 Two classes are different if they don't have the same relationship to a third class. (Contributed by NM, 3-Jun-2012.)
((𝐴𝑅𝐶 ∧ ¬ 𝐵𝑅𝐶) → 𝐴𝐵)

Theoremeqbrtri 4604 Substitution of equal classes into a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 1-Aug-1999.)
𝐴 = 𝐵    &   𝐵𝑅𝐶       𝐴𝑅𝐶

Theoremeqbrtrd 4605 Substitution of equal classes into a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 8-Oct-1999.)
(𝜑𝐴 = 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑅𝐶)       (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐶)

Theoremeqbrtrri 4606 Substitution of equal classes into a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 1-Aug-1999.)
𝐴 = 𝐵    &   𝐴𝑅𝐶       𝐵𝑅𝐶

Theoremeqbrtrrd 4607 Substitution of equal classes into a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 24-Oct-1999.)
(𝜑𝐴 = 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐶)       (𝜑𝐵𝑅𝐶)

Theorembreqtri 4608 Substitution of equal classes into a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 1-Aug-1999.)
𝐴𝑅𝐵    &   𝐵 = 𝐶       𝐴𝑅𝐶

Theorembreqtrd 4609 Substitution of equal classes into a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 24-Oct-1999.)
(𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐵 = 𝐶)       (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐶)

Theorembreqtrri 4610 Substitution of equal classes into a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 1-Aug-1999.)
𝐴𝑅𝐵    &   𝐶 = 𝐵       𝐴𝑅𝐶

Theorembreqtrrd 4611 Substitution of equal classes into a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 24-Oct-1999.)
(𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐶 = 𝐵)       (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐶)

Theorem3brtr3i 4612 Substitution of equality into both sides of a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 11-Aug-1999.)
𝐴𝑅𝐵    &   𝐴 = 𝐶    &   𝐵 = 𝐷       𝐶𝑅𝐷

Theorem3brtr4i 4613 Substitution of equality into both sides of a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 11-Aug-1999.)
𝐴𝑅𝐵    &   𝐶 = 𝐴    &   𝐷 = 𝐵       𝐶𝑅𝐷

Theorem3brtr3d 4614 Substitution of equality into both sides of a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 18-Oct-1999.)
(𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 = 𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐵 = 𝐷)       (𝜑𝐶𝑅𝐷)

Theorem3brtr4d 4615 Substitution of equality into both sides of a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 21-Feb-2005.)
(𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐶 = 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐷 = 𝐵)       (𝜑𝐶𝑅𝐷)

Theorem3brtr3g 4616 Substitution of equality into both sides of a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 16-Jan-1997.)
(𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)    &   𝐴 = 𝐶    &   𝐵 = 𝐷       (𝜑𝐶𝑅𝐷)

Theorem3brtr4g 4617 Substitution of equality into both sides of a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 16-Jan-1997.)
(𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)    &   𝐶 = 𝐴    &   𝐷 = 𝐵       (𝜑𝐶𝑅𝐷)

Theoremsyl5eqbr 4618 A chained equality inference for a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 11-Oct-1999.)
𝐴 = 𝐵    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑅𝐶)       (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐶)

Theoremsyl5eqbrr 4619 A chained equality inference for a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 17-Sep-2004.)
𝐵 = 𝐴    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑅𝐶)       (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐶)

Theoremsyl5breq 4620 A chained equality inference for a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 11-Oct-1999.)
𝐴𝑅𝐵    &   (𝜑𝐵 = 𝐶)       (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐶)

Theoremsyl5breqr 4621 A chained equality inference for a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 24-Apr-2005.)
𝐴𝑅𝐵    &   (𝜑𝐶 = 𝐵)       (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐶)

Theoremsyl6eqbr 4622 A chained equality inference for a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 12-Oct-1999.)
(𝜑𝐴 = 𝐵)    &   𝐵𝑅𝐶       (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐶)

Theoremsyl6eqbrr 4623 A chained equality inference for a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 4-Jan-2006.)
(𝜑𝐵 = 𝐴)    &   𝐵𝑅𝐶       (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐶)

Theoremsyl6breq 4624 A chained equality inference for a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 11-Oct-1999.)
(𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)    &   𝐵 = 𝐶       (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐶)

Theoremsyl6breqr 4625 A chained equality inference for a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 24-Apr-2005.)
(𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)    &   𝐶 = 𝐵       (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐶)

Theoremssbrd 4626 Deduction from a subclass relationship of binary relations. (Contributed by NM, 30-Apr-2004.)
(𝜑𝐴𝐵)       (𝜑 → (𝐶𝐴𝐷𝐶𝐵𝐷))

Theoremssbri 4627 Inference from a subclass relationship of binary relations. (Contributed by NM, 28-Mar-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-Feb-2015.)
𝐴𝐵       (𝐶𝐴𝐷𝐶𝐵𝐷)

Theoremnfbrd 4628 Deduction version of bound-variable hypothesis builder nfbr 4629. (Contributed by NM, 13-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Oct-2016.)
(𝜑𝑥𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑥𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝑥𝐵)       (𝜑 → Ⅎ𝑥 𝐴𝑅𝐵)

Theoremnfbr 4629 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 1-Sep-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Oct-2016.)
𝑥𝐴    &   𝑥𝑅    &   𝑥𝐵       𝑥 𝐴𝑅𝐵

Theorembrab1 4630* Relationship between a binary relation and a class abstraction. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 8-Jul-2011.)
(𝑥𝑅𝐴𝑥 ∈ {𝑧𝑧𝑅𝐴})

Theorembr0 4631 The empty binary relation never holds. (Contributed by NM, 23-Aug-2018.)
¬ 𝐴𝐵

Theorembrne0 4632 If two sets are in a binary relation, the relation cannot be empty. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 7-Jul-2018.)
(𝐴𝑅𝐵𝑅 ≠ ∅)

Theorembrun 4633 The union of two binary relations. (Contributed by NM, 21-Dec-2008.)
(𝐴(𝑅𝑆)𝐵 ↔ (𝐴𝑅𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐵))

Theorembrin 4634 The intersection of two relations. (Contributed by FL, 7-Oct-2008.)
(𝐴(𝑅𝑆)𝐵 ↔ (𝐴𝑅𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐵))

Theorembrdif 4635 The difference of two binary relations. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 11-Apr-2011.)
(𝐴(𝑅𝑆)𝐵 ↔ (𝐴𝑅𝐵 ∧ ¬ 𝐴𝑆𝐵))

Theoremsbcbr123 4636 Move substitution in and out of a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 13-Dec-2005.) (Modified by NM, 22-Aug-2018.)
([𝐴 / 𝑥]𝐵𝑅𝐶𝐴 / 𝑥𝐵𝐴 / 𝑥𝑅𝐴 / 𝑥𝐶)

Theoremsbcbr 4637* Move substitution in and out of a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 23-Aug-2018.)
([𝐴 / 𝑥]𝐵𝑅𝐶𝐵𝐴 / 𝑥𝑅𝐶)

Theoremsbcbr12g 4638* Move substitution in and out of a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 13-Dec-2005.)
(𝐴𝑉 → ([𝐴 / 𝑥]𝐵𝑅𝐶𝐴 / 𝑥𝐵𝑅𝐴 / 𝑥𝐶))

Theoremsbcbr1g 4639* Move substitution in and out of a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 13-Dec-2005.)
(𝐴𝑉 → ([𝐴 / 𝑥]𝐵𝑅𝐶𝐴 / 𝑥𝐵𝑅𝐶))

Theoremsbcbr2g 4640* Move substitution in and out of a binary relation. (Contributed by NM, 13-Dec-2005.)
(𝐴𝑉 → ([𝐴 / 𝑥]𝐵𝑅𝐶𝐵𝑅𝐴 / 𝑥𝐶))

Theorembrsymdif 4641 The binary relationship of a symmetric difference. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 11-Apr-2012.)
(𝐴(𝑅𝑆)𝐵 ↔ ¬ (𝐴𝑅𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐵))

2.1.23  Ordered-pair class abstractions (class builders)

Syntaxcopab 4642 Extend class notation to include ordered-pair class abstraction (class builder).
class {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜑}

Syntaxcmpt 4643 Extend the definition of a class to include maps-to notation for defining a function via a rule.
class (𝑥𝐴𝐵)

Definitiondf-opab 4644* Define the class abstraction of a collection of ordered pairs. Definition 3.3 of [Monk1] p. 34. Usually 𝑥 and 𝑦 are distinct, although the definition doesn't strictly require it (see dfid2 4956 for a case where they are not distinct). The brace notation is called "class abstraction" by Quine; it is also (more commonly) called a "class builder" in the literature. An alternate definition using no existential quantifiers is shown by dfopab2 7113. For example, 𝑅 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝑦 ∈ ℂ ∧ (𝑥 + 1) = 𝑦)} → 3𝑅4 (ex-opab 26681). (Contributed by NM, 4-Jul-1994.)
{⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜑} = {𝑧 ∣ ∃𝑥𝑦(𝑧 = ⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∧ 𝜑)}

Definitiondf-mpt 4645* Define maps-to notation for defining a function via a rule. Read as "the function defined by the map from 𝑥 (in 𝐴) to 𝐵(𝑥)." The class expression 𝐵 is the value of the function at 𝑥 and normally contains the variable 𝑥. An example is the square function for complex numbers, (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ (𝑥↑2)). Similar to the definition of mapping in [ChoquetDD] p. 2. (Contributed by NM, 17-Feb-2008.)
(𝑥𝐴𝐵) = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ (𝑥𝐴𝑦 = 𝐵)}

Theoremopabss 4646* The collection of ordered pairs in a class is a subclass of it. (Contributed by NM, 27-Dec-1996.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 9-Jul-2011.)
{⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝑥𝑅𝑦} ⊆ 𝑅

Theoremopabbid 4647 Equivalent wff's yield equal ordered-pair class abstractions (deduction rule). (Contributed by NM, 21-Feb-2004.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 9-Jul-2011.)
𝑥𝜑    &   𝑦𝜑    &   (𝜑 → (𝜓𝜒))       (𝜑 → {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜓} = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜒})

Theoremopabbidv 4648* Equivalent wff's yield equal ordered-pair class abstractions (deduction rule). (Contributed by NM, 15-May-1995.)
(𝜑 → (𝜓𝜒))       (𝜑 → {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜓} = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜒})

Theoremopabbii 4649 Equivalent wff's yield equal class abstractions. (Contributed by NM, 15-May-1995.)
(𝜑𝜓)       {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜑} = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜓}

Theoremnfopab 4650* Bound-variable hypothesis builder for class abstraction. (Contributed by NM, 1-Sep-1999.) (Unnecessary distinct variable restrictions were removed by Andrew Salmon, 11-Jul-2011.)
𝑧𝜑       𝑧{⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜑}

Theoremnfopab1 4651 The first abstraction variable in an ordered-pair class abstraction (class builder) is effectively not free. (Contributed by NM, 16-May-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Oct-2016.)
𝑥{⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜑}

Theoremnfopab2 4652 The second abstraction variable in an ordered-pair class abstraction (class builder) is effectively not free. (Contributed by NM, 16-May-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Oct-2016.)
𝑦{⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜑}

Theoremcbvopab 4653* Rule used to change bound variables in an ordered-pair class abstraction, using implicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 14-Sep-2003.)
𝑧𝜑    &   𝑤𝜑    &   𝑥𝜓    &   𝑦𝜓    &   ((𝑥 = 𝑧𝑦 = 𝑤) → (𝜑𝜓))       {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜑} = {⟨𝑧, 𝑤⟩ ∣ 𝜓}

Theoremcbvopabv 4654* Rule used to change bound variables in an ordered-pair class abstraction, using implicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 15-Oct-1996.)
((𝑥 = 𝑧𝑦 = 𝑤) → (𝜑𝜓))       {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜑} = {⟨𝑧, 𝑤⟩ ∣ 𝜓}

Theoremcbvopab1 4655* Change first bound variable in an ordered-pair class abstraction, using explicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 6-Oct-2004.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Oct-2016.)
𝑧𝜑    &   𝑥𝜓    &   (𝑥 = 𝑧 → (𝜑𝜓))       {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜑} = {⟨𝑧, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜓}

Theoremcbvopab2 4656* Change second bound variable in an ordered-pair class abstraction, using explicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 22-Aug-2013.)
𝑧𝜑    &   𝑦𝜓    &   (𝑦 = 𝑧 → (𝜑𝜓))       {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜑} = {⟨𝑥, 𝑧⟩ ∣ 𝜓}

Theoremcbvopab1s 4657* Change first bound variable in an ordered-pair class abstraction, using explicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 31-Jul-2003.)
{⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜑} = {⟨𝑧, 𝑦⟩ ∣ [𝑧 / 𝑥]𝜑}

Theoremcbvopab1v 4658* Rule used to change the first bound variable in an ordered pair abstraction, using implicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 31-Jul-2003.) (Proof shortened by Eric Schmidt, 4-Apr-2007.)
(𝑥 = 𝑧 → (𝜑𝜓))       {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜑} = {⟨𝑧, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜓}

Theoremcbvopab2v 4659* Rule used to change the second bound variable in an ordered pair abstraction, using implicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 2-Sep-1999.)
(𝑦 = 𝑧 → (𝜑𝜓))       {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜑} = {⟨𝑥, 𝑧⟩ ∣ 𝜓}

Theoremunopab 4660 Union of two ordered pair class abstractions. (Contributed by NM, 30-Sep-2002.)
({⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜑} ∪ {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝜓}) = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ (𝜑𝜓)}

Theoremmpteq12f 4661 An equality theorem for the maps to notation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Dec-2013.)
((∀𝑥 𝐴 = 𝐶 ∧ ∀𝑥𝐴 𝐵 = 𝐷) → (𝑥𝐴𝐵) = (𝑥𝐶𝐷))

Theoremmpteq12dva 4662* An equality inference for the maps to notation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 26-Jan-2017.)
(𝜑𝐴 = 𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 = 𝐷)       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝐴𝐵) = (𝑥𝐶𝐷))

Theoremmpteq12dv 4663* An equality inference for the maps to notation. (Contributed by NM, 24-Aug-2011.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 16-Dec-2013.)
(𝜑𝐴 = 𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐵 = 𝐷)       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝐴𝐵) = (𝑥𝐶𝐷))

Theoremmpteq12 4664* An equality theorem for the maps to notation. (Contributed by NM, 16-Dec-2013.)
((𝐴 = 𝐶 ∧ ∀𝑥𝐴 𝐵 = 𝐷) → (𝑥𝐴𝐵) = (𝑥𝐶𝐷))

Theoremmpteq1 4665* An equality theorem for the maps to notation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Dec-2013.)
(𝐴 = 𝐵 → (𝑥𝐴𝐶) = (𝑥𝐵𝐶))

Theoremmpteq1d 4666* An equality theorem for the maps to notation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Jun-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 = 𝐵)       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝐴𝐶) = (𝑥𝐵𝐶))

Theoremmpteq1i 4667* An equality theorem for the maps to notation. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 17-Aug-2020.)
𝐴 = 𝐵       (𝑥𝐴𝐶) = (𝑥𝐵𝐶)

Theoremmpteq2ia 4668 An equality inference for the maps to notation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Dec-2013.)
(𝑥𝐴𝐵 = 𝐶)       (𝑥𝐴𝐵) = (𝑥𝐴𝐶)

Theoremmpteq2i 4669 An equality inference for the maps to notation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Dec-2013.)
𝐵 = 𝐶       (𝑥𝐴𝐵) = (𝑥𝐴𝐶)

Theoremmpteq12i 4670 An equality inference for the maps to notation. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 27-Oct-2010.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 16-Dec-2013.)
𝐴 = 𝐶    &   𝐵 = 𝐷       (𝑥𝐴𝐵) = (𝑥𝐶𝐷)

Theoremmpteq2da 4671 Slightly more general equality inference for the maps to notation. (Contributed by FL, 14-Sep-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 16-Dec-2013.)
𝑥𝜑    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 = 𝐶)       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝐴𝐵) = (𝑥𝐴𝐶))

Theoremmpteq2dva 4672* Slightly more general equality inference for the maps to notation. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 25-Apr-2012.)
((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 = 𝐶)       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝐴𝐵) = (𝑥𝐴𝐶))

Theoremmpteq2dv 4673* An equality inference for the maps to notation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-Aug-2014.)
(𝜑𝐵 = 𝐶)       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝐴𝐵) = (𝑥𝐴𝐶))

Theoremnfmpt 4674* Bound-variable hypothesis builder for the maps-to notation. (Contributed by NM, 20-Feb-2013.)
𝑥𝐴    &   𝑥𝐵       𝑥(𝑦𝐴𝐵)

Theoremnfmpt1 4675 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for the maps-to notation. (Contributed by FL, 17-Feb-2008.)
𝑥(𝑥𝐴𝐵)

Theoremcbvmptf 4676* Rule to change the bound variable in a maps-to function, using implicit substitution. This version has bound-variable hypotheses in place of distinct variable conditions. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 9-Mar-2017.)
𝑥𝐴    &   𝑦𝐴    &   𝑦𝐵    &   𝑥𝐶    &   (𝑥 = 𝑦𝐵 = 𝐶)       (𝑥𝐴𝐵) = (𝑦𝐴𝐶)

Theoremcbvmpt 4677* Rule to change the bound variable in a maps-to function, using implicit substitution. This version has bound-variable hypotheses in place of distinct variable conditions. (Contributed by NM, 11-Sep-2011.)
𝑦𝐵    &   𝑥𝐶    &   (𝑥 = 𝑦𝐵 = 𝐶)       (𝑥𝐴𝐵) = (𝑦𝐴𝐶)

Theoremcbvmptv 4678* Rule to change the bound variable in a maps-to function, using implicit substitution. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 19-Feb-2013.)
(𝑥 = 𝑦𝐵 = 𝐶)       (𝑥𝐴𝐵) = (𝑦𝐴𝐶)

Theoremmptv 4679* Function with universal domain in maps-to notation. (Contributed by NM, 16-Aug-2013.)
(𝑥 ∈ V ↦ 𝐵) = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝑦 = 𝐵}

2.1.24  Transitive classes

Syntaxwtr 4680 Extend wff notation to include transitive classes. Notation from [TakeutiZaring] p. 35.
wff Tr 𝐴

Definitiondf-tr 4681 Define the transitive class predicate. Not to be confused with a transitive relation (see cotr 5427). Definition of [Enderton] p. 71 extended to arbitrary classes. For alternate definitions, see dftr2 4682 (which is suggestive of the word "transitive"), dftr3 4684, dftr4 4685, dftr5 4683, and (when 𝐴 is a set) unisuc 5718. The term "complete" is used instead of "transitive" in Definition 3 of [Suppes] p. 130. (Contributed by NM, 29-Aug-1993.)
(Tr 𝐴 𝐴𝐴)

Theoremdftr2 4682* An alternate way of defining a transitive class. Exercise 7 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 40. (Contributed by NM, 24-Apr-1994.)
(Tr 𝐴 ↔ ∀𝑥𝑦((𝑥𝑦𝑦𝐴) → 𝑥𝐴))

Theoremdftr5 4683* An alternate way of defining a transitive class. (Contributed by NM, 20-Mar-2004.)
(Tr 𝐴 ↔ ∀𝑥𝐴𝑦𝑥 𝑦𝐴)

Theoremdftr3 4684* An alternate way of defining a transitive class. Definition 7.1 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 35. (Contributed by NM, 29-Aug-1993.)
(Tr 𝐴 ↔ ∀𝑥𝐴 𝑥𝐴)

Theoremdftr4 4685 An alternate way of defining a transitive class. Definition of [Enderton] p. 71. (Contributed by NM, 29-Aug-1993.)
(Tr 𝐴𝐴 ⊆ 𝒫 𝐴)

Theoremtreq 4686 Equality theorem for the transitive class predicate. (Contributed by NM, 17-Sep-1993.)
(𝐴 = 𝐵 → (Tr 𝐴 ↔ Tr 𝐵))

Theoremtrel 4687 In a transitive class, the membership relation is transitive. (Contributed by NM, 19-Apr-1994.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 9-Jul-2011.)
(Tr 𝐴 → ((𝐵𝐶𝐶𝐴) → 𝐵𝐴))

Theoremtrel3 4688 In a transitive class, the membership relation is transitive. (Contributed by NM, 19-Apr-1994.)
(Tr 𝐴 → ((𝐵𝐶𝐶𝐷𝐷𝐴) → 𝐵𝐴))

Theoremtrss 4689 An element of a transitive class is a subset of the class. (Contributed by NM, 7-Aug-1994.) (Proof shortened by JJ, 26-Jul-2021.)
(Tr 𝐴 → (𝐵𝐴𝐵𝐴))

TheoremtrssOLD 4690 Obsolete proof of trss 4689 as of 26-Jul-2021. (Contributed by NM, 7-Aug-1994.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(Tr 𝐴 → (𝐵𝐴𝐵𝐴))

Theoremtrin 4691 The intersection of transitive classes is transitive. (Contributed by NM, 9-May-1994.)
((Tr 𝐴 ∧ Tr 𝐵) → Tr (𝐴𝐵))

Theoremtr0 4692 The empty set is transitive. (Contributed by NM, 16-Sep-1993.)
Tr ∅

Theoremtrv 4693 The universe is transitive. (Contributed by NM, 14-Sep-2003.)
Tr V

Theoremtriun 4694* The indexed union of a class of transitive sets is transitive. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Nov-2014.)
(∀𝑥𝐴 Tr 𝐵 → Tr 𝑥𝐴 𝐵)

Theoremtruni 4695* The union of a class of transitive sets is transitive. Exercise 5(a) of [Enderton] p. 73. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 21-Feb-2011.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 26-Apr-2014.)
(∀𝑥𝐴 Tr 𝑥 → Tr 𝐴)

Theoremtrint 4696* The intersection of a class of transitive sets is transitive. Exercise 5(b) of [Enderton] p. 73. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 25-Feb-2011.)
(∀𝑥𝐴 Tr 𝑥 → Tr 𝐴)

Theoremtrintss 4697 If 𝐴 is transitive and non-null, then 𝐴 is a subset of 𝐴. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 3-Mar-2011.)
((𝐴 ≠ ∅ ∧ Tr 𝐴) → 𝐴𝐴)

Theoremtrint0 4698 Any nonempty transitive class includes its intersection. Exercise 2 in [TakeutiZaring] p. 44. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 14-Nov-2011.)
((Tr 𝐴𝐴 ≠ ∅) → 𝐴𝐴)

2.2  ZF Set Theory - add the Axiom of Replacement

2.2.1  Introduce the Axiom of Replacement

Axiomax-rep 4699* Axiom of Replacement. An axiom scheme of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. Axiom 5 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 19. It tells us that the image of any set under a function is also a set (see the variant funimaex 5890). Although 𝜑 may be any wff whatsoever, this axiom is useful (i.e. its antecedent is satisfied) when we are given some function and 𝜑 encodes the predicate "the value of the function at 𝑤 is 𝑧." Thus, 𝜑 will ordinarily have free variables 𝑤 and 𝑧- think of it informally as 𝜑(𝑤, 𝑧). We prefix 𝜑 with the quantifier 𝑦 in order to "protect" the axiom from any 𝜑 containing 𝑦, thus allowing us to eliminate any restrictions on 𝜑. Another common variant is derived as axrep5 4704, where you can find some further remarks. A slightly more compact version is shown as axrep2 4701. A quite different variant is zfrep6 7027, which if used in place of ax-rep 4699 would also require that the Separation Scheme axsep 4708 be stated as a separate axiom.

There is a very strong generalization of Replacement that doesn't demand function-like behavior of 𝜑. Two versions of this generalization are called the Collection Principle cp 8637 and the Boundedness Axiom bnd 8638.

Many developments of set theory distinguish the uses of Replacement from uses of the weaker axioms of Separation axsep 4708, Null Set axnul 4716, and Pairing axpr 4832, all of which we derive from Replacement. In order to make it easier to identify the uses of those redundant axioms, we restate them as axioms ax-sep 4709, ax-nul 4717, and ax-pr 4833 below the theorems that prove them. (Contributed by NM, 23-Dec-1993.)

(∀𝑤𝑦𝑧(∀𝑦𝜑𝑧 = 𝑦) → ∃𝑦𝑧(𝑧𝑦 ↔ ∃𝑤(𝑤𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝜑)))

Theoremaxrep1 4700* The version of the Axiom of Replacement used in the Metamath Solitaire applet http://us.metamath.org/mmsolitaire/mms.html. Equivalence is shown via the path ax-rep 4699 axrep1 4700 axrep2 4701 axrepnd 9295 zfcndrep 9315 = ax-rep 4699. (Contributed by NM, 19-Nov-2005.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 17-Nov-2016.)
𝑥(∃𝑦𝑧(𝜑𝑧 = 𝑦) → ∀𝑧(𝑧𝑥 ↔ ∃𝑥(𝑥𝑦𝜑)))

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