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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 31401-31500   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremoutsidene2 31401 Outsideness implies inequality. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ → 𝐵𝑃))

Theorembtwnoutside 31402 A principle linking outsideness to betweenness. Theorem 6.2 of [Schwabhauser] p. 43. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (((𝐴𝑃𝐵𝑃𝐶𝑃) ∧ 𝑃 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩) → (𝑃 Btwn ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩ ↔ 𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩)))

Theorembroutsideof3 31403* Characterization of outsideness in terms of relationship to a fourth point. Theorem 6.3 of [Schwabhauser] p. 43. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ ↔ (𝐴𝑃𝐵𝑃 ∧ ∃𝑐 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)(𝑐𝑃𝑃 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑐⟩ ∧ 𝑃 Btwn ⟨𝐵, 𝑐⟩))))

Theoremoutsideofrflx 31404 Reflexitivity of outsideness. Theorem 6.5 of [Schwabhauser] p. 44. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) → (𝐴𝑃𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐴⟩))

Theoremoutsideofcom 31405 Commutitivity law for outsideness. Theorem 6.6 of [Schwabhauser] p. 44. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ ↔ 𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐵, 𝐴⟩))

Theoremoutsideoftr 31406 Transitivity law for outsideness. Theorem 6.7 of [Schwabhauser] p. 44. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ((𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ ∧ 𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩) → 𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩))

Theoremoutsideofeq 31407 Uniqueness law for OutsideOf. Analogue of segconeq 31287. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 24-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑅 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑋 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑌 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (((𝐴OutsideOf⟨𝑋, 𝑅⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐴, 𝑋⟩Cgr⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩) ∧ (𝐴OutsideOf⟨𝑌, 𝑅⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐴, 𝑌⟩Cgr⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩)) → 𝑋 = 𝑌))

Theoremoutsideofeu 31408* Given a non-degenerate ray, there is a unique point congruent to the segment 𝐵𝐶 lying on the ray 𝐴𝑅. Theorem 6.11 of [Schwabhauser] p. 44. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 23-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑅 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ((𝑅𝐴𝐵𝐶) → ∃!𝑥 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)(𝐴OutsideOf⟨𝑥, 𝑅⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐴, 𝑥⟩Cgr⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩)))

Theoremoutsidele 31409 Relate OutsideOf to Seg. Theorem 6.13 of [Schwabhauser] p. 45. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 24-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ → (⟨𝑃, 𝐴⟩ Seg𝑃, 𝐵⟩ ↔ 𝐴 Btwn ⟨𝑃, 𝐵⟩)))

Theoremoutsideofcol 31410 Outside of implies colinearity. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 26-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
(𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝑄, 𝑅⟩ → 𝑃 Colinear ⟨𝑄, 𝑅⟩)

21.8.29.8  Lines and Rays

Syntaxcline2 31411 Declare the constant for the line function.
class Line

Syntaxcray 31412 Declare the constant for the ray function.
class Ray

Syntaxclines2 31413 Declare the constant for the set of all lines.
class LinesEE

Definitiondf-line2 31414* Define the Line function. This function generates the line passing through the distinct points 𝑎 and 𝑏. Adapted from definition 6.14 of [Schwabhauser] p. 45. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 25-Oct-2013.)
Line = {⟨⟨𝑎, 𝑏⟩, 𝑙⟩ ∣ ∃𝑛 ∈ ℕ ((𝑎 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛) ∧ 𝑎𝑏) ∧ 𝑙 = [⟨𝑎, 𝑏⟩] Colinear )}

Definitiondf-ray 31415* Define the Ray function. This function generates the set of all points that lie on the ray starting at 𝑝 and passing through 𝑎. Definition 6.8 of [Schwabhauser] p. 44. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 21-Oct-2013.)
Ray = {⟨⟨𝑝, 𝑎⟩, 𝑟⟩ ∣ ∃𝑛 ∈ ℕ ((𝑝 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛) ∧ 𝑎 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛) ∧ 𝑝𝑎) ∧ 𝑟 = {𝑥 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛) ∣ 𝑝OutsideOf⟨𝑎, 𝑥⟩})}

Definitiondf-lines2 31416 Define the set of all lines. Definition 6.14, part 2 of [Schwabhauser] p. 45. See ellines 31429 for membership. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-Oct-2013.)
LinesEE = ran Line

Theoremfunray 31417 Show that the Ray relationship is a function. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 21-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
Fun Ray

Theoremfvray 31418* Calculate the value of the Ray function. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 21-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃𝐴)) → (𝑃Ray𝐴) = {𝑥 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∣ 𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝑥⟩})

Theoremfunline 31419 Show that the Line relationship is a function. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 25-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
Fun Line

Theoremlinedegen 31420 When Line is applied with the same argument, the result is the empty set. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 29-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
(𝐴Line𝐴) = ∅

Theoremfvline 31421* Calculate the value of the Line function. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 25-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴𝐵)) → (𝐴Line𝐵) = {𝑥𝑥 Colinear ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩})

Theoremliness 31422 A line is a subset of the space its two points lie in. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 25-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴𝐵)) → (𝐴Line𝐵) ⊆ (𝔼‘𝑁))

Theoremfvline2 31423* Alternate definition of a line. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 25-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴𝐵)) → (𝐴Line𝐵) = {𝑥 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∣ 𝑥 Colinear ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩})

Theoremlineunray 31424 A line is composed of a point and the two rays emerging from it. Theorem 6.15 of [Schwabhauser] p. 45. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 26-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑅 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝑃𝑄𝑃𝑅)) → (𝑃 Btwn ⟨𝑄, 𝑅⟩ → (𝑃Line𝑄) = (((𝑃Ray𝑄) ∪ {𝑃}) ∪ (𝑃Ray𝑅))))

Theoremlineelsb2 31425 If 𝑆 lies on 𝑃𝑄, then 𝑃𝑄 = 𝑃𝑆. Theorem 6.16 of [Schwabhauser] p. 45. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 27-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃𝑄) ∧ (𝑆 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃𝑆)) → (𝑆 ∈ (𝑃Line𝑄) → (𝑃Line𝑄) = (𝑃Line𝑆)))

Theoremlinerflx1 31426 Reflexivity law for line membership. Part of theorem 6.17 of [Schwabhauser] p. 45. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃𝑄)) → 𝑃 ∈ (𝑃Line𝑄))

Theoremlinecom 31427 Commutativity law for lines. Part of theorem 6.17 of [Schwabhauser] p. 45. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃𝑄)) → (𝑃Line𝑄) = (𝑄Line𝑃))

Theoremlinerflx2 31428 Reflexivity law for line membership. Part of theorem 6.17 of [Schwabhauser] p. 45. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃𝑄)) → 𝑄 ∈ (𝑃Line𝑄))

Theoremellines 31429* Membership in the set of all lines. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ LinesEE ↔ ∃𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∃𝑝 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛)∃𝑞 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛)(𝑝𝑞𝐴 = (𝑝Line𝑞)))

Theoremlinethru 31430 If 𝐴 is a line containing two distinct points 𝑃 and 𝑄, then 𝐴 is the line through 𝑃 and 𝑄. Theorem 6.18 of [Schwabhauser] p. 45. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ LinesEE ∧ (𝑃𝐴𝑄𝐴) ∧ 𝑃𝑄) → 𝐴 = (𝑃Line𝑄))

Theoremhilbert1.1 31431* There is a line through any two distinct points. Hilbert's axiom I.1 for geometry. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 29-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃𝑄)) → ∃𝑥 ∈ LinesEE (𝑃𝑥𝑄𝑥))

Theoremhilbert1.2 31432* There is at most one line through any two distinct points. Hilbert's axiom I.2 for geometry. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 29-Oct-2013.) (Revised by NM, 17-Jun-2017.)
(𝑃𝑄 → ∃*𝑥 ∈ LinesEE (𝑃𝑥𝑄𝑥))

Theoremlinethrueu 31433* There is a unique line going through any two distinct points. Theorem 6.19 of [Schwabhauser] p. 46. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 29-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃𝑄)) → ∃!𝑥 ∈ LinesEE (𝑃𝑥𝑄𝑥))

Theoremlineintmo 31434* Two distinct lines intersect in at most one point. Theorem 6.21 of [Schwabhauser] p. 46. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 29-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ LinesEE ∧ 𝐵 ∈ LinesEE ∧ 𝐴𝐵) → ∃*𝑥(𝑥𝐴𝑥𝐵))

21.8.30  Forward difference

Syntaxcfwddif 31435 Declare the syntax for the forward difference operator.
class

Definitiondf-fwddif 31436* Define the forward difference operator. This is a discrete analogue of the derivative operator. Definition 2.42 of [GramKnuthPat], p. 47. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-May-2020.)
△ = (𝑓 ∈ (ℂ ↑pm ℂ) ↦ (𝑥 ∈ {𝑦 ∈ dom 𝑓 ∣ (𝑦 + 1) ∈ dom 𝑓} ↦ ((𝑓‘(𝑥 + 1)) − (𝑓𝑥))))

Syntaxcfwddifn 31437 Declare the syntax for the nth forward difference operator.
class n

Definitiondf-fwddifn 31438* Define the nth forward difference operator. This works out to be the forward difference operator iterated 𝑛 times. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-May-2020.)
n = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0, 𝑓 ∈ (ℂ ↑pm ℂ) ↦ (𝑥 ∈ {𝑦 ∈ ℂ ∣ ∀𝑘 ∈ (0...𝑛)(𝑦 + 𝑘) ∈ dom 𝑓} ↦ Σ𝑘 ∈ (0...𝑛)((𝑛C𝑘) · ((-1↑(𝑛𝑘)) · (𝑓‘(𝑥 + 𝑘))))))

Theoremfwddifval 31439 Calculate the value of the forward difference operator at a point. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-May-2020.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑋 + 1) ∈ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → (( △ ‘𝐹)‘𝑋) = ((𝐹‘(𝑋 + 1)) − (𝐹𝑋)))

Theoremfwddifnval 31440* The value of the forward difference operator at a point. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-May-2020.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (0...𝑁)) → (𝑋 + 𝑘) ∈ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → ((𝑁n 𝐹)‘𝑋) = Σ𝑘 ∈ (0...𝑁)((𝑁C𝑘) · ((-1↑(𝑁𝑘)) · (𝐹‘(𝑋 + 𝑘)))))

Theoremfwddifn0 31441 The value of the n-iterated forward difference operator at zero is just the function value. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-May-2020.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐴)       (𝜑 → ((0 △n 𝐹)‘𝑋) = (𝐹𝑋))

Theoremfwddifnp1 31442* The value of the n-iterated forward difference at a successor. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-May-2020.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (0...(𝑁 + 1))) → (𝑋 + 𝑘) ∈ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → (((𝑁 + 1) △n 𝐹)‘𝑋) = (((𝑁n 𝐹)‘(𝑋 + 1)) − ((𝑁n 𝐹)‘𝑋)))

21.8.31  Rank theorems

Theoremrankung 31443 The rank of the union of two sets. Closed form of rankun 8602. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 15-Jul-2015.)
((𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑊) → (rank‘(𝐴𝐵)) = ((rank‘𝐴) ∪ (rank‘𝐵)))

Theoremranksng 31444 The rank of a singleton. Closed form of ranksn 8600. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 15-Jul-2015.)
(𝐴𝑉 → (rank‘{𝐴}) = suc (rank‘𝐴))

Theoremrankelg 31445 The membership relation is inherited by the rank function. Closed form of rankel 8585. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 16-Jul-2015.)
((𝐵𝑉𝐴𝐵) → (rank‘𝐴) ∈ (rank‘𝐵))

Theoremrankpwg 31446 The rank of a power set. Closed form of rankpw 8589. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 16-Jul-2015.)
(𝐴𝑉 → (rank‘𝒫 𝐴) = suc (rank‘𝐴))

Theoremrank0 31447 The rank of the empty set is . (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 17-Jul-2015.)
(rank‘∅) = ∅

Theoremrankeq1o 31448 The only set with rank 1𝑜 is the singleton of the empty set. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 17-Jul-2015.)
((rank‘𝐴) = 1𝑜𝐴 = {∅})

21.8.32  Hereditarily Finite Sets

Syntaxchf 31449 The constant Hf is a class.
class Hf

Definitiondf-hf 31450 Define the hereditarily finite sets. These are the finite sets whose elements are finite, and so forth. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 9-Jul-2015.)
Hf = (𝑅1 “ ω)

Theoremelhf 31451* Membership in the hereditarily finite sets. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 9-Jul-2015.)
(𝐴 ∈ Hf ↔ ∃𝑥 ∈ ω 𝐴 ∈ (𝑅1𝑥))

Theoremelhf2 31452 Alternate form of membership in the hereditarily finite sets. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 13-Jul-2015.)
𝐴 ∈ V       (𝐴 ∈ Hf ↔ (rank‘𝐴) ∈ ω)

Theoremelhf2g 31453 Hereditarily finiteness via rank. Closed form of elhf2 31452. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 15-Jul-2015.)
(𝐴𝑉 → (𝐴 ∈ Hf ↔ (rank‘𝐴) ∈ ω))

Theorem0hf 31454 The empty set is a hereditarily finite set. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 9-Jul-2015.)
∅ ∈ Hf

Theoremhfun 31455 The union of two HF sets is an HF set. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 15-Jul-2015.)
((𝐴 ∈ Hf ∧ 𝐵 ∈ Hf ) → (𝐴𝐵) ∈ Hf )

Theoremhfsn 31456 The singleton of an HF set is an HF set. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 15-Jul-2015.)
(𝐴 ∈ Hf → {𝐴} ∈ Hf )

Theoremhfadj 31457 Adjoining one HF element to an HF set preserves HF status. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 15-Jul-2015.)
((𝐴 ∈ Hf ∧ 𝐵 ∈ Hf ) → (𝐴 ∪ {𝐵}) ∈ Hf )

Theoremhfelhf 31458 Any member of an HF set is itself an HF set. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 16-Jul-2015.)
((𝐴𝐵𝐵 ∈ Hf ) → 𝐴 ∈ Hf )

Theoremhftr 31459 The class of all hereditarily finite sets is transitive. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 16-Jul-2015.)
Tr Hf

Theoremhfext 31460* Extensionality for HF sets depends only on comparison of HF elements. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 16-Jul-2015.)
((𝐴 ∈ Hf ∧ 𝐵 ∈ Hf ) → (𝐴 = 𝐵 ↔ ∀𝑥 ∈ Hf (𝑥𝐴𝑥𝐵)))

Theoremhfuni 31461 The union of an HF set is itself hereditarily finite. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 16-Jul-2015.)
(𝐴 ∈ Hf → 𝐴 ∈ Hf )

Theoremhfpw 31462 The power class of an HF set is hereditarily finite. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 16-Jul-2015.)
(𝐴 ∈ Hf → 𝒫 𝐴 ∈ Hf )

Theoremhfninf 31463 ω is not hereditarily finite. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 16-Jul-2015.)
¬ ω ∈ Hf

21.9  Mathbox for Jeff Hankins

21.9.1  Miscellany

Theorema1i14 31464 Add two antecedents to a wff. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 4-Aug-2009.)
(𝜓 → (𝜒𝜏))       (𝜑 → (𝜓 → (𝜒 → (𝜃𝜏))))

Theorema1i24 31465 Add two antecedents to a wff. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 5-Aug-2009.)
(𝜑 → (𝜒𝜏))       (𝜑 → (𝜓 → (𝜒 → (𝜃𝜏))))

Theoremexp5d 31466 An exportation inference. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 7-Jul-2009.)
(((𝜑𝜓) ∧ 𝜒) → ((𝜃𝜏) → 𝜂))       (𝜑 → (𝜓 → (𝜒 → (𝜃 → (𝜏𝜂)))))

Theoremexp5g 31467 An exportation inference. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 7-Jul-2009.)
((𝜑𝜓) → (((𝜒𝜃) ∧ 𝜏) → 𝜂))       (𝜑 → (𝜓 → (𝜒 → (𝜃 → (𝜏𝜂)))))

Theoremexp5k 31468 An exportation inference. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 7-Jul-2009.)
(𝜑 → (((𝜓 ∧ (𝜒𝜃)) ∧ 𝜏) → 𝜂))       (𝜑 → (𝜓 → (𝜒 → (𝜃 → (𝜏𝜂)))))

Theoremexp56 31469 An exportation inference. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 7-Jul-2009.)
((((𝜑𝜓) ∧ 𝜒) ∧ (𝜃𝜏)) → 𝜂)       (𝜑 → (𝜓 → (𝜒 → (𝜃 → (𝜏𝜂)))))

Theoremexp58 31470 An exportation inference. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 7-Jul-2009.)
(((𝜑𝜓) ∧ ((𝜒𝜃) ∧ 𝜏)) → 𝜂)       (𝜑 → (𝜓 → (𝜒 → (𝜃 → (𝜏𝜂)))))

Theoremexp510 31471 An exportation inference. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 7-Jul-2009.)
((𝜑 ∧ (((𝜓𝜒) ∧ 𝜃) ∧ 𝜏)) → 𝜂)       (𝜑 → (𝜓 → (𝜒 → (𝜃 → (𝜏𝜂)))))

Theoremexp511 31472 An exportation inference. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 7-Jul-2009.)
((𝜑 ∧ ((𝜓 ∧ (𝜒𝜃)) ∧ 𝜏)) → 𝜂)       (𝜑 → (𝜓 → (𝜒 → (𝜃 → (𝜏𝜂)))))

Theoremexp512 31473 An exportation inference. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 7-Jul-2009.)
((𝜑 ∧ ((𝜓𝜒) ∧ (𝜃𝜏))) → 𝜂)       (𝜑 → (𝜓 → (𝜒 → (𝜃 → (𝜏𝜂)))))

Theorem3com12d 31474 Commutation in consequent. Swap 1st and 2nd. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 17-Nov-2009.)
(𝜑 → (𝜓𝜒𝜃))       (𝜑 → (𝜒𝜓𝜃))

Theoremimp5p 31475 A triple importation inference. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 8-Jul-2009.)
(𝜑 → (𝜓 → (𝜒 → (𝜃 → (𝜏𝜂)))))       (𝜑 → (𝜓 → ((𝜒𝜃𝜏) → 𝜂)))

Theoremimp5q 31476 A triple importation inference. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 8-Jul-2009.)
(𝜑 → (𝜓 → (𝜒 → (𝜃 → (𝜏𝜂)))))       ((𝜑𝜓) → ((𝜒𝜃𝜏) → 𝜂))

Theoremecase13d 31477 Deduction for elimination by cases. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 18-Aug-2009.)
(𝜑 → ¬ 𝜒)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 𝜃)    &   (𝜑 → (𝜒𝜓𝜃))       (𝜑𝜓)

Theoremsubtr 31478 Transitivity of implicit substitution. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 13-Sep-2009.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 11-Dec-2016.)
𝑥𝐴    &   𝑥𝐵    &   𝑥𝑌    &   𝑥𝑍    &   (𝑥 = 𝐴𝑋 = 𝑌)    &   (𝑥 = 𝐵𝑋 = 𝑍)       ((𝐴𝐶𝐵𝐷) → (𝐴 = 𝐵𝑌 = 𝑍))

Theoremsubtr2 31479 Transitivity of implicit substitution into a wff. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 19-Sep-2009.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 11-Dec-2016.)
𝑥𝐴    &   𝑥𝐵    &   𝑥𝜓    &   𝑥𝜒    &   (𝑥 = 𝐴 → (𝜑𝜓))    &   (𝑥 = 𝐵 → (𝜑𝜒))       ((𝐴𝐶𝐵𝐷) → (𝐴 = 𝐵 → (𝜓𝜒)))

Theoremtrer 31480* A relation intersected with its converse is an equivalence relation if the relation is transitive. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 6-Oct-2009.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(∀𝑎𝑏𝑐((𝑎 𝑏𝑏 𝑐) → 𝑎 𝑐) → ( ) Er dom ( ))

Theoremelicc3 31481 An equivalent membership condition for closed intervals. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 14-Jul-2009.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ*𝐵 ∈ ℝ*) → (𝐶 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↔ (𝐶 ∈ ℝ*𝐴𝐵 ∧ (𝐶 = 𝐴 ∨ (𝐴 < 𝐶𝐶 < 𝐵) ∨ 𝐶 = 𝐵))))

Theoremfinminlem 31482* A useful lemma about finite sets. If a property holds for a finite set, it holds for a minimal set. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 4-Dec-2009.)
(𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜓))       (∃𝑥 ∈ Fin 𝜑 → ∃𝑥(𝜑 ∧ ∀𝑦((𝑦𝑥𝜓) → 𝑥 = 𝑦)))

Theoremgtinf 31483* Any number greater than an infimum is greater than some element of the set. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 29-Sep-2013.) (Revised by AV, 10-Oct-2021.)
(((𝑆 ⊆ ℝ ∧ 𝑆 ≠ ∅ ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑦𝑆 𝑥𝑦) ∧ (𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ inf(𝑆, ℝ, < ) < 𝐴)) → ∃𝑧𝑆 𝑧 < 𝐴)

TheoremgtinfOLD 31484* Any number greater than an infimum is greater than some element of the set. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 29-Sep-2013.) Obsolete version of gtinf 31483 as of 10-Oct-2021. (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(((𝑆 ⊆ ℝ ∧ 𝑆 ≠ ∅ ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑦𝑆 𝑥𝑦) ∧ (𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ sup(𝑆, ℝ, < ) < 𝐴)) → ∃𝑧𝑆 𝑧 < 𝐴)

Theoremopnrebl 31485* A set is open in the standard topology of the reals precisely when every point can be enclosed in an open ball. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 23-Sep-2013.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 30-Jan-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ (topGen‘ran (,)) ↔ (𝐴 ⊆ ℝ ∧ ∀𝑥𝐴𝑦 ∈ ℝ+ ((𝑥𝑦)(,)(𝑥 + 𝑦)) ⊆ 𝐴))

Theoremopnrebl2 31486* A set is open in the standard topology of the reals precisely when every point can be enclosed in an arbitrarily small ball. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 22-Sep-2013.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 30-Jan-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ (topGen‘ran (,)) ↔ (𝐴 ⊆ ℝ ∧ ∀𝑥𝐴𝑦 ∈ ℝ+𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ (𝑧𝑦 ∧ ((𝑥𝑧)(,)(𝑥 + 𝑧)) ⊆ 𝐴)))

Theoremnn0prpwlem 31487* Lemma for nn0prpw 31488. Use strong induction to show that every positive integer has unique prime power divisors. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 28-Sep-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℕ → ∀𝑘 ∈ ℕ (𝑘 < 𝐴 → ∃𝑝 ∈ ℙ ∃𝑛 ∈ ℕ ¬ ((𝑝𝑛) ∥ 𝑘 ↔ (𝑝𝑛) ∥ 𝐴)))

Theoremnn0prpw 31488* Two nonnegative integers are the same if and only if they are divisible by the same prime powers. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 29-Sep-2013.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℕ0𝐵 ∈ ℕ0) → (𝐴 = 𝐵 ↔ ∀𝑝 ∈ ℙ ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ((𝑝𝑛) ∥ 𝐴 ↔ (𝑝𝑛) ∥ 𝐵)))

21.9.2  Basic topological facts

Theoremtopbnd 31489 Two equivalent expressions for the boundary of a topology. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 23-Sep-2009.)
𝑋 = 𝐽       ((𝐽 ∈ Top ∧ 𝐴𝑋) → (((cls‘𝐽)‘𝐴) ∩ ((cls‘𝐽)‘(𝑋𝐴))) = (((cls‘𝐽)‘𝐴) ∖ ((int‘𝐽)‘𝐴)))

Theoremopnbnd 31490 A set is open iff it is disjoint from its boundary. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 23-Sep-2009.)
𝑋 = 𝐽       ((𝐽 ∈ Top ∧ 𝐴𝑋) → (𝐴𝐽 ↔ (𝐴 ∩ (((cls‘𝐽)‘𝐴) ∩ ((cls‘𝐽)‘(𝑋𝐴)))) = ∅))

Theoremcldbnd 31491 A set is closed iff it contains its boundary. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 1-Oct-2009.)
𝑋 = 𝐽       ((𝐽 ∈ Top ∧ 𝐴𝑋) → (𝐴 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽) ↔ (((cls‘𝐽)‘𝐴) ∩ ((cls‘𝐽)‘(𝑋𝐴))) ⊆ 𝐴))

Theoremntruni 31492* A union of interiors is a subset of the interior of the union. The reverse inclusion may not hold. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 31-Aug-2009.)
𝑋 = 𝐽       ((𝐽 ∈ Top ∧ 𝑂 ⊆ 𝒫 𝑋) → 𝑜𝑂 ((int‘𝐽)‘𝑜) ⊆ ((int‘𝐽)‘ 𝑂))

Theoremclsun 31493 A pairwise union of closures is the closure of the union. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 31-Aug-2009.)
𝑋 = 𝐽       ((𝐽 ∈ Top ∧ 𝐴𝑋𝐵𝑋) → ((cls‘𝐽)‘(𝐴𝐵)) = (((cls‘𝐽)‘𝐴) ∪ ((cls‘𝐽)‘𝐵)))

Theoremclsint2 31494* The closure of an intersection is a subset of the intersection of the closures. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 31-Aug-2009.)
𝑋 = 𝐽       ((𝐽 ∈ Top ∧ 𝐶 ⊆ 𝒫 𝑋) → ((cls‘𝐽)‘ 𝐶) ⊆ 𝑐𝐶 ((cls‘𝐽)‘𝑐))

Theoremopnregcld 31495* A set is regularly closed iff it is the closure of some open set. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 27-Sep-2009.)
𝑋 = 𝐽       ((𝐽 ∈ Top ∧ 𝐴𝑋) → (((cls‘𝐽)‘((int‘𝐽)‘𝐴)) = 𝐴 ↔ ∃𝑜𝐽 𝐴 = ((cls‘𝐽)‘𝑜)))

Theoremcldregopn 31496* A set if regularly open iff it is the interior of some closed set. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 27-Sep-2009.)
𝑋 = 𝐽       ((𝐽 ∈ Top ∧ 𝐴𝑋) → (((int‘𝐽)‘((cls‘𝐽)‘𝐴)) = 𝐴 ↔ ∃𝑐 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽)𝐴 = ((int‘𝐽)‘𝑐)))

Theoremneiin 31497 Two neighborhoods intersect to form a neighborhood of the intersection. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 31-Aug-2009.)
((𝐽 ∈ Top ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ((nei‘𝐽)‘𝐴) ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ((nei‘𝐽)‘𝐵)) → (𝑀𝑁) ∈ ((nei‘𝐽)‘(𝐴𝐵)))

Theoremhmeoclda 31498 Homeomorphisms preserve closedness. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 3-Jul-2009.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 3-Jun-2014.)
(((𝐽 ∈ Top ∧ 𝐾 ∈ Top ∧ 𝐹 ∈ (𝐽Homeo𝐾)) ∧ 𝑆 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽)) → (𝐹𝑆) ∈ (Clsd‘𝐾))

Theoremhmeocldb 31499 Homeomorphisms preserve closedness. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 3-Jul-2009.)
(((𝐽 ∈ Top ∧ 𝐾 ∈ Top ∧ 𝐹 ∈ (𝐽Homeo𝐾)) ∧ 𝑆 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐾)) → (𝐹𝑆) ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽))

21.9.3  Topology of the real numbers

TheoremivthALT 31500* An alternate proof of the Intermediate Value Theorem ivth 23030 using topology. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 17-Aug-2009.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 15-Dec-2013.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝑈 ∈ ℝ) ∧ 𝐴 < 𝐵 ∧ ((𝐴[,]𝐵) ⊆ 𝐷𝐷 ⊆ ℂ ∧ (𝐹 ∈ (𝐷cn→ℂ) ∧ (𝐹 “ (𝐴[,]𝐵)) ⊆ ℝ ∧ 𝑈 ∈ ((𝐹𝐴)(,)(𝐹𝐵))))) → ∃𝑥 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵)(𝐹𝑥) = 𝑈)

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