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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 9001-9100   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremwuncn 9001 A weak universe containing contains the complex number construction. This theorem is construction-dependent in the literal sense, but will also be satisfied by any other reasonable implementation of the complex numbers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Jan-2017.)
WUni

5.1.3  Real and complex number postulates restated as axioms

Axiomax-cnex 9002 The complex numbers form a set. This axiom is redundant - see cnexALT 10564- but we provide this axiom because the justification theorem axcnex 8978 does not use ax-rep 4280 even though the redundancy proof does. Proofs should normally use cnex 9027 instead. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 1-Mar-1995.)

Axiomax-resscn 9003 The real numbers are a subset of the complex numbers. Axiom 1 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axresscn 8979. (Contributed by NM, 1-Mar-1995.)

Axiomax-1cn 9004 1 is a complex number. Axiom 2 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem ax1cn 8980. (Contributed by NM, 1-Mar-1995.)

Axiomax-icn 9005 is a complex number. Axiom 3 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axicn 8981. (Contributed by NM, 1-Mar-1995.)

Axiomax-addcl 9006 Closure law for addition of complex numbers. Axiom 4 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axaddcl 8982. Proofs should normally use addcl 9028 instead, which asserts the same thing but follows our naming conventions for closures. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 22-Nov-1994.)

Axiomax-addrcl 9007 Closure law for addition in the real subfield of complex numbers. Axiom 6 of 23 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axaddrcl 8983. Proofs should normally use readdcl 9029 instead. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 22-Nov-1994.)

Axiomax-mulcl 9008 Closure law for multiplication of complex numbers. Axiom 6 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axmulcl 8984. Proofs should normally use mulcl 9030 instead. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 22-Nov-1994.)

Axiomax-mulrcl 9009 Closure law for multiplication in the real subfield of complex numbers. Axiom 7 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axmulrcl 8985. Proofs should normally use remulcl 9031 instead. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 22-Nov-1994.)

Axiomax-mulcom 9010 Multiplication of complex numbers is commutative. Axiom 8 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axmulcom 8986. Proofs should normally use mulcom 9032 instead. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 22-Nov-1994.)

Axiomax-addass 9011 Addition of complex numbers is associative. Axiom 9 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axaddass 8987. Proofs should normally use addass 9033 instead. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 22-Nov-1994.)

Axiomax-mulass 9012 Multiplication of complex numbers is associative. Axiom 10 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axmulass 8988. Proofs should normally use mulass 9034 instead. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 22-Nov-1994.)

Axiomax-distr 9013 Distributive law for complex numbers. Axiom 11 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axdistr 8989. Proofs should normally use adddi 9035 instead. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 22-Nov-1994.)

Axiomax-i2m1 9014 i-squared equals -1 (expressed as i-squared plus 1 is 0). Axiom 12 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axi2m1 8990. (Contributed by NM, 29-Jan-1995.)

Axiomax-1ne0 9015 1 and 0 are distinct. Axiom 13 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem ax1ne0 8991. (Contributed by NM, 29-Jan-1995.)

Axiomax-1rid 9016 is an identity element for real multiplication. Axiom 14 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem ax1rid 8992. Weakened from the original axiom in the form of statement in mulid1 9044, based on ideas by Eric Schmidt. (Contributed by NM, 29-Jan-1995.)

Axiomax-rnegex 9017* Existence of negative of real number. Axiom 15 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axrnegex 8993. (Contributed by Eric Schmidt, 21-May-2007.)

Axiomax-rrecex 9018* Existence of reciprocal of nonzero real number. Axiom 16 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axrrecex 8994. (Contributed by Eric Schmidt, 11-Apr-2007.)

Axiomax-cnre 9019* A complex number can be expressed in terms of two reals. Definition 10-1.1(v) of [Gleason] p. 130. Axiom 17 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axcnre 8995. For naming consistency, use cnre 9043 for new proofs. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 9-May-1999.)

Axiomax-pre-lttri 9020 Ordering on reals satisfies strict trichotomy. Axiom 18 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axpre-lttri 8996. Note: The more general version for extended reals is axlttri 9103. Normally new proofs would use xrlttri 10688. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)

Axiomax-pre-lttrn 9021 Ordering on reals is transitive. Axiom 19 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axpre-lttrn 8997. Note: The more general version for extended reals is axlttrn 9104. Normally new proofs would use lttr 9108. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)

Axiomax-pre-ltadd 9022 Ordering property of addition on reals. Axiom 20 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axpre-ltadd 8998. Normally new proofs would use axltadd 9105. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)

Axiomax-pre-mulgt0 9023 The product of two positive reals is positive. Axiom 21 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axpre-mulgt0 8999. Normally new proofs would use axmulgt0 9106. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)

Axiomax-pre-sup 9024* A non-empty, bounded-above set of reals has a supremum. Axiom 22 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axpre-sup 9000. Note: Normally new proofs would use axsup 9107. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)

Axiomax-addf 9025 Addition is an operation on the complex numbers. This deprecated axiom is provided for historical compatibility but is not a bona fide axiom for complex numbers (independent of set theory) since it cannot be interpreted as a first- or second-order statement (see http://us.metamath.org/downloads/schmidt-cnaxioms.pdf). . It may be deleted in the future and should be avoided for new theorems. Instead, the less specific addcl 9028 should be used. Note that uses of ax-addf 9025 can be eliminated by using the defined operation in place of , from which this axiom (with the defined operation in place of ) follows as a theorem.

This axiom is justified by theorem axaddf 8976. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 19-Oct-2004.)

Axiomax-mulf 9026 Multiplication is an operation on the complex numbers. This deprecated axiom is provided for historical compatibility but is not a bona fide axiom for complex numbers (independent of set theory) since it cannot be interpreted as a first- or second-order statement (see http://us.metamath.org/downloads/schmidt-cnaxioms.pdf). . It may be deleted in the future and should be avoided for new theorems. Instead, the less specific ax-mulcl 9008 should be used. Note that uses of ax-mulf 9026 can be eliminated by using the defined operation in place of , from which this axiom (with the defined operation in place of ) follows as a theorem.

This axiom is justified by theorem axmulf 8977. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 19-Oct-2004.)

5.2  Derive the basic properties from the field axioms

5.2.1  Some deductions from the field axioms for complex numbers

Theoremcnex 9027 Alias for ax-cnex 9002. See also cnexALT 10564. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 17-Nov-2014.)

Theoremmulcl 9030 Alias for ax-mulcl 9008, for naming consistency with mulcli 9051. (Contributed by NM, 10-Mar-2008.)

Theoremremulcl 9031 Alias for ax-mulrcl 9009, for naming consistency with remulcli 9060. (Contributed by NM, 10-Mar-2008.)

Theoremmulcom 9032 Alias for ax-mulcom 9010, for naming consistency with mulcomi 9052. (Contributed by NM, 10-Mar-2008.)

Theoremmulass 9034 Alias for ax-mulass 9012, for naming consistency with mulassi 9055. (Contributed by NM, 10-Mar-2008.)

Theoremadddi 9035 Alias for ax-distr 9013, for naming consistency with adddii 9056. (Contributed by NM, 10-Mar-2008.)

Theoremrecn 9036 A real number is a complex number. (Contributed by NM, 10-Aug-1999.)

Theoremreex 9037 The real numbers form a set. See also reexALT 10562. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 17-Nov-2014.)

Theoremelimne0 9038 Hypothesis for weak deduction theorem to eliminate . (Contributed by NM, 15-May-1999.)

Theoremadddir 9039 Distributive law for complex numbers. (Contributed by NM, 10-Oct-2004.)

Theorem0cn 9040 0 is a complex number. See also 0cnALT 9251. (Contributed by NM, 19-Feb-2005.)

Theoremc0ex 9041 0 is a set. Common special case. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 7-Jul-2016.)

Theorem1ex 9042 1 is a set. Common special case. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 7-Jul-2016.)

Theoremcnre 9043* Alias for ax-cnre 9019, for naming consistency. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Jan-2013.)

Theoremmulid1 9044 is an identity element for multiplication. Based on ideas by Eric Schmidt. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 3-Jan-2013.)

Theoremmulid2 9045 Identity law for multiplication. Note: see mulid1 9044 for commuted version. (Contributed by NM, 8-Oct-1999.)

Theorem1re 9046 is a real number. This used to be one of our postulates for complex numbers, but Eric Schmidt discovered that it could be derived from a weaker postulate, ax-1cn 9004, by exploiting properties of the imaginary unit . (Contributed by Eric Schmidt, 11-Apr-2007.) (Revised by Scott Fenton, 3-Jan-2013.)

Theorem0re 9047 is a real number. See also 0reALT 9353. (Contributed by Eric Schmidt, 21-May-2007.) (Revised by Scott Fenton, 3-Jan-2013.)

Theoremmulid1i 9048 Identity law for multiplication. (Contributed by NM, 14-Feb-1995.)

Theoremmulid2i 9049 Identity law for multiplication. (Contributed by NM, 14-Feb-1995.)

Theoremmulcli 9051 Closure law for multiplication. (Contributed by NM, 23-Nov-1994.)

Theoremmulcomi 9052 Commutative law for multiplication. (Contributed by NM, 23-Nov-1994.)

Theoremmulcomli 9053 Commutative law for multiplication. (Contributed by NM, 23-Nov-1994.)

Theoremmulassi 9055 Associative law for multiplication. (Contributed by NM, 23-Nov-1994.)

Theoremadddii 9056 Distributive law. (Contributed by NM, 23-Nov-1994.)

Theoremadddiri 9057 Distributive law. (Contributed by NM, 16-Feb-1995.)

Theoremrecni 9058 A real number is a complex number. (Contributed by NM, 1-Mar-1995.)

Theoremreaddcli 9059 Closure law for addition of reals. (Contributed by NM, 17-Jan-1997.)

Theoremremulcli 9060 Closure law for multiplication of reals. (Contributed by NM, 17-Jan-1997.)

Theoremmulid1d 9061 Identity law for multiplication. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)

Theoremmulid2d 9062 Identity law for multiplication. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)

Theoremmulcld 9064 Closure law for multiplication. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)

Theoremmulcomd 9065 Commutative law for multiplication. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)

Theoremmulassd 9067 Associative law for multiplication. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)

Theoremadddid 9068 Distributive law. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)

Theoremadddird 9069 Distributive law. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)

Theoremrecnd 9070 Deduction from real number to complex number. (Contributed by NM, 26-Oct-1999.)

Theoremreaddcld 9071 Closure law for addition of reals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)

Theoremremulcld 9072 Closure law for multiplication of reals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)

5.2.2  Infinity and the extended real number system

Syntaxcpnf 9073 Plus infinity.

Syntaxcmnf 9074 Minus infinity.

Syntaxcxr 9075 The set of extended reals (includes plus and minus infinity).

Syntaxclt 9076 'Less than' predicate (extended to include the extended reals).

Syntaxcle 9077 Extend wff notation to include the 'less than or equal to' relation.

Definitiondf-pnf 9078 Define plus infinity. Note that the definition is arbitrary, requiring only that be a set not in and different from (df-mnf 9079). We use to make it independent of the construction of , and Cantor's Theorem will show that it is different from any member of and therefore . See pnfnre 9083, mnfnre 9084, and pnfnemnf 10673.

A simpler possibility is to define as and as , but that approach requires the Axiom of Regularity to show that and are different from each other and from all members of . (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.) (New usage is discouraged.)

Definitiondf-mnf 9079 Define minus infinity as the power set of plus infinity. Note that the definition is arbitrary, requiring only that be a set not in and different from (see mnfnre 9084 and pnfnemnf 10673). (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.) (New usage is discouraged.)

Definitiondf-xr 9080 Define the set of extended reals that includes plus and minus infinity. Definition 12-3.1 of [Gleason] p. 173. (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)

Definitiondf-ltxr 9081* Define 'less than' on the set of extended reals. Definition 12-3.1 of [Gleason] p. 173. Note that in our postulates for complex numbers, is primitive and not necessarily a relation on . (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)

Definitiondf-le 9082 Define 'less than or equal to' on the extended real subset of complex numbers. Theorem leloe 9117 relates it to 'less than' for reals. (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)

Theorempnfnre 9083 Plus infinity is not a real number. (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)

Theoremmnfnre 9084 Minus infinity is not a real number. (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)

Theoremressxr 9085 The standard reals are a subset of the extended reals. (Contributed by NM, 14-Oct-2005.)

Theoremrexr 9086 A standard real is an extended real. (Contributed by NM, 14-Oct-2005.)

Theorem0xr 9087 Zero is an extended real. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Jun-2014.)

Theoremrenepnf 9088 No (finite) real equals plus infinity. (Contributed by NM, 14-Oct-2005.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 19-Nov-2011.)

Theoremrenemnf 9089 No real equals minus infinity. (Contributed by NM, 14-Oct-2005.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 19-Nov-2011.)

Theoremrexrd 9090 A standard real is an extended real. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2016.)

Theoremrenepnfd 9091 No (finite) real equals plus infinity. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2016.)

Theoremrenemnfd 9092 No real equals minus infinity. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2016.)

Theoremrexri 9093 A standard real is an extended real (inference form.) (Contributed by David Moews, 28-Feb-2017.)

Theoremrenfdisj 9094 The reals and the infinities are disjoint. (Contributed by NM, 25-Oct-2005.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 19-Nov-2011.)

Theoremltrelxr 9095 'Less than' is a relation on extended reals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-Apr-2015.)

Theoremltrel 9096 'Less than' is a relation. (Contributed by NM, 14-Oct-2005.)

Theoremlerelxr 9097 'Less than or equal' is a relation on extended reals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-Apr-2015.)

Theoremlerel 9098 'Less or equal to' is a relation. (Contributed by FL, 2-Aug-2009.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 28-Apr-2015.)

Theoremxrlenlt 9099 'Less than or equal to' expressed in terms of 'less than', for extended reals. (Contributed by NM, 14-Oct-2005.)

Theoremxrltnle 9100 'Less than' expressed in terms of 'less than or equal to', for extended reals. (Contributed by NM, 6-Feb-2007.)

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