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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 3201-3300   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement
 
Theoremreu7 3201* Restricted uniqueness using implicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 24-Oct-2006.)
 |-  ( x  =  y 
 ->  ( ph  <->  ps ) )   =>    |-  ( E! x  e.  A  ph  <->  ( E. x  e.  A  ph  /\  E. x  e.  A  A. y  e.  A  ( ps  ->  x  =  y ) ) )
 
Theoremreu8 3202* Restricted uniqueness using implicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 24-Oct-2006.)
 |-  ( x  =  y 
 ->  ( ph  <->  ps ) )   =>    |-  ( E! x  e.  A  ph  <->  E. x  e.  A  ( ph  /\  A. y  e.  A  ( ps  ->  x  =  y ) ) )
 
Theoremreu2eqd 3203* Deduce equality from restricted uniqueness, deduction version. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Nov-2019.)
 |-  ( x  =  B  ->  ( ps  <->  ch ) )   &    |-  ( x  =  C  ->  ( ps  <->  th ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  E! x  e.  A  ps )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  B  e.  A )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  C  e.  A )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  ch )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  th )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  B  =  C )
 
Theoremreueq 3204* Equality has existential uniqueness. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2015.)
 |-  ( B  e.  A  <->  E! x  e.  A  x  =  B )
 
Theoremrmoeq 3205* Equality's restricted existential "at most one" property. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 30-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 27-Oct-2020.) (Proof shortened by NM, 29-Oct-2020.)
 |- 
 E* x  e.  B  x  =  A
 
Theoremrmoan 3206 Restricted "at most one" still holds when a conjunct is added. (Contributed by NM, 16-Jun-2017.)
 |-  ( E* x  e.  A  ph  ->  E* x  e.  A  ( ps  /\  ph ) )
 
Theoremrmoim 3207 Restricted "at most one" is preserved through implication (note wff reversal). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-Jun-2017.)
 |-  ( A. x  e.  A  ( ph  ->  ps )  ->  ( E* x  e.  A  ps  ->  E* x  e.  A  ph ) )
 
Theoremrmoimia 3208 Restricted "at most one" is preserved through implication (note wff reversal). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-Jun-2017.)
 |-  ( x  e.  A  ->  ( ph  ->  ps )
 )   =>    |-  ( E* x  e.  A  ps  ->  E* x  e.  A  ph )
 
Theoremrmoimi2 3209 Restricted "at most one" is preserved through implication (note wff reversal). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-Jun-2017.)
 |- 
 A. x ( ( x  e.  A  /\  ph )  ->  ( x  e.  B  /\  ps )
 )   =>    |-  ( E* x  e.  B  ps  ->  E* x  e.  A  ph )
 
Theorem2reuswap 3210* A condition allowing swap of uniqueness and existential quantifiers. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 7-Apr-2017.) (Revised by NM, 16-Jun-2017.)
 |-  ( A. x  e.  A  E* y  e.  B  ph  ->  ( E! x  e.  A  E. y  e.  B  ph  ->  E! y  e.  B  E. x  e.  A  ph )
 )
 
Theoremreuind 3211* Existential uniqueness via an indirect equality. (Contributed by NM, 16-Oct-2010.)
 |-  ( x  =  y 
 ->  ( ph  <->  ps ) )   &    |-  ( x  =  y  ->  A  =  B )   =>    |-  ( ( A. x A. y ( ( ( A  e.  C  /\  ph )  /\  ( B  e.  C  /\  ps ) )  ->  A  =  B )  /\  E. x ( A  e.  C  /\  ph ) )  ->  E! z  e.  C  A. x ( ( A  e.  C  /\  ph )  ->  z  =  A ) )
 
Theorem2rmorex 3212* Double restricted quantification with "at most one," analogous to 2moex 2343. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-Jun-2017.)
 |-  ( E* x  e.  A  E. y  e.  B  ph  ->  A. y  e.  B  E* x  e.  A  ph )
 
Theorem2reu5lem1 3213* Lemma for 2reu5 3216. Note that  E! x  e.  A E! y  e.  B ph does not mean "there is exactly one  x in  A and exactly one  y in  B such that  ph holds;" see comment for 2eu5 2357. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-Jun-2017.)
 |-  ( E! x  e.  A  E! y  e.  B  ph  <->  E! x E! y
 ( x  e.  A  /\  y  e.  B  /\  ph ) )
 
Theorem2reu5lem2 3214* Lemma for 2reu5 3216. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-Jun-2017.)
 |-  ( A. x  e.  A  E* y  e.  B  ph  <->  A. x E* y
 ( x  e.  A  /\  y  e.  B  /\  ph ) )
 
Theorem2reu5lem3 3215* Lemma for 2reu5 3216. This lemma is interesting in its own right, showing that existential restriction in the last conjunct (the "at most one" part) is optional; compare rmo2 3324. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-Jun-2017.)
 |-  ( ( E! x  e.  A  E! y  e.  B  ph  /\  A. x  e.  A  E* y  e.  B  ph )  <->  ( E. x  e.  A  E. y  e.  B  ph  /\  E. z E. w A. x  e.  A  A. y  e.  B  ( ph  ->  ( x  =  z  /\  y  =  w )
 ) ) )
 
Theorem2reu5 3216* Double restricted existential uniqueness in terms of restricted existential quantification and restricted universal quantification, analogous to 2eu5 2357 and reu3 3196. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-Jun-2017.)
 |-  ( ( E! x  e.  A  E! y  e.  B  ph  /\  A. x  e.  A  E* y  e.  B  ph )  <->  ( E. x  e.  A  E. y  e.  B  ph  /\  E. z  e.  A  E. w  e.  B  A. x  e.  A  A. y  e.  B  ( ph  ->  ( x  =  z  /\  y  =  w )
 ) ) )
 
Theoremnelrdva 3217* Deduce negative membership from an implication. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Nov-2017.)
 |-  ( ( ph  /\  x  e.  A )  ->  x  =/=  B )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  -.  B  e.  A )
 
2.1.7  Conditional equality (experimental)

This is a very useless definition, which "abbreviates"  ( x  =  y  ->  ph ) as CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  ph ). What this display hides, though, is that the first expression, even though it has a shorter constant string, is actually much more complicated in its parse tree: it is parsed as (wi (wceq (cv vx) (cv vy)) wph), while the CondEq version is parsed as (wcdeq vx vy wph). It also allows us to give a name to the specific 3-ary operation  ( x  =  y  ->  ph ).

This is all used as part of a metatheorem: we want to say that  |-  ( x  =  y  ->  ( ph ( x )  <->  ph ( y ) ) ) and  |-  ( x  =  y  ->  A
( x )  =  A ( y ) ) are provable, for any expressions  ph ( x ) or  A ( x ) in the language. The proof is by induction, so the base case is each of the primitives, which is why you will see a theorem for each of the set.mm primitive operations.

The metatheorem comes with a disjoint variables assumption: every variable in  ph ( x ) is assumed disjoint from 
x except  x itself. For such a proof by induction, we must consider each of the possible forms of  ph ( x ). If it is a variable other than  x, then we have CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  A  =  A ) or CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  ( ph  <->  ph ) ), which is provable by cdeqth 3222 and reflexivity. Since we are only working with class and wff expressions, it can't be  x itself in set.mm, but if it was we'd have to also prove CondEq
( x  =  y  ->  x  =  y ) (where set equality is being used on the right).

Otherwise, it is a primitive operation applied to smaller expressions. In these cases, for each setvar variable parameter to the operation, we must consider if it is equal to  x or not, which yields 2^n proof obligations. Luckily, all primitive operations in set.mm have either zero or one setvar variable, so we only need to prove one statement for the non-set constructors (like implication) and two for the constructors taking a set (the forall and the class builder).

In each of the primitive proofs, we are allowed to assume that  y is disjoint from  ph ( x ) and vice versa, because this is maintained through the induction. This is how we satisfy the dv conditions of cdeqab1 3227 and cdeqab 3225.

 
Syntaxwcdeq 3218 Extend wff notation to include conditional equality. This is a technical device used in the proof that 
F/ is the not-free predicate, and that definitions are conservative as a result.
 wff CondEq ( x  =  y 
 ->  ph )
 
Definitiondf-cdeq 3219 Define conditional equality. All the notation to the left of the  <-> is fake; the parentheses and arrows are all part of the notation, which could equally well be written CondEq x y ph. On the right side is the actual implication arrow. The reason for this definition is to "flatten" the structure on the right side (whose tree structure is something like (wi (wceq (cv vx) (cv vy)) wph) ) into just (wcdeq vx vy wph). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.)
 |-  (CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  ph )  <->  ( x  =  y  ->  ph ) )
 
Theoremcdeqi 3220 Deduce conditional equality. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.)
 |-  ( x  =  y 
 ->  ph )   =>    |- CondEq ( x  =  y  -> 
 ph )
 
Theoremcdeqri 3221 Property of conditional equality. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.)
 |- CondEq ( x  =  y  -> 
 ph )   =>    |-  ( x  =  y 
 ->  ph )
 
Theoremcdeqth 3222 Deduce conditional equality from a theorem. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.)
 |-  ph   =>    |- CondEq ( x  =  y  -> 
 ph )
 
Theoremcdeqnot 3223 Distribute conditional equality over negation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.)
 |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  ( ph  <->  ps ) )   =>    |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  ( -.  ph  <->  -. 
 ps ) )
 
Theoremcdeqal 3224* Distribute conditional equality over quantification. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.)
 |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  ( ph  <->  ps ) )   =>    |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  ( A. z ph  <->  A. z ps )
 )
 
Theoremcdeqab 3225* Distribute conditional equality over abstraction. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.)
 |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  ( ph  <->  ps ) )   =>    |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  { z  |  ph }  =  {
 z  |  ps }
 )
 
Theoremcdeqal1 3226* Distribute conditional equality over quantification. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.)
 |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  ( ph  <->  ps ) )   =>    |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  ( A. x ph  <->  A. y ps )
 )
 
Theoremcdeqab1 3227* Distribute conditional equality over abstraction. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.)
 |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  ( ph  <->  ps ) )   =>    |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  { x  |  ph }  =  {
 y  |  ps }
 )
 
Theoremcdeqim 3228 Distribute conditional equality over implication. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.)
 |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  ( ph  <->  ps ) )   &    |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  ( ch 
 <-> 
 th ) )   =>    |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  ( ( ph  ->  ch )  <->  ( ps  ->  th ) ) )
 
Theoremcdeqcv 3229 Conditional equality for set-to-class promotion. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.)
 |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  x  =  y )
 
Theoremcdeqeq 3230 Distribute conditional equality over equality. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.)
 |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  A  =  B )   &    |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  C  =  D )   =>    |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  ( A  =  C  <->  B  =  D ) )
 
Theoremcdeqel 3231 Distribute conditional equality over elementhood. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.)
 |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  A  =  B )   &    |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  C  =  D )   =>    |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  ( A  e.  C  <->  B  e.  D ) )
 
Theoremnfcdeq 3232* If we have a conditional equality proof, where  ph is  ph ( x ) and  ps is  ph (
y ), and  ph (
x ) in fact does not have  x free in it according to  F/, then  ph ( x )  <->  ph ( y ) unconditionally. This proves that  F/ x ph is actually a not-free predicate. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.)
 |- 
 F/ x ph   &    |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  ( ph  <->  ps ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  <->  ps )
 
Theoremnfccdeq 3233* Variation of nfcdeq 3232 for classes. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.)
 |-  F/_ x A   &    |- CondEq ( x  =  y  ->  A  =  B )   =>    |-  A  =  B
 
2.1.8  Russell's Paradox
 
Theoremru 3234 Russell's Paradox. Proposition 4.14 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 14.

In the late 1800s, Frege's Axiom of (unrestricted) Comprehension, expressed in our notation as 
A  e.  _V, asserted that any collection of sets  A is a set i.e. belongs to the universe 
_V of all sets. In particular, by substituting  { x  |  x  e/  x } (the "Russell class") for  A, it asserted  { x  |  x  e/  x }  e.  _V, meaning that the "collection of all sets which are not members of themselves" is a set. However, here we prove  { x  |  x  e/  x }  e/  _V. This contradiction was discovered by Russell in 1901 (published in 1903), invalidating the Comprehension Axiom and leading to the collapse of Frege's system.

In 1908, Zermelo rectified this fatal flaw by replacing Comprehension with a weaker Subset (or Separation) Axiom ssex 4504 asserting that  A is a set only when it is smaller than some other set  B. However, Zermelo was then faced with a "chicken and egg" problem of how to show  B is a set, leading him to introduce the set-building axioms of Null Set 0ex 4492, Pairing prex 4599, Union uniex 6538, Power Set pwex 4543, and Infinity omex 8094 to give him some starting sets to work with (all of which, before Russell's Paradox, were immediate consequences of Frege's Comprehension). In 1922 Fraenkel strengthened the Subset Axiom with our present Replacement Axiom funimaex 5615 (whose modern formalization is due to Skolem, also in 1922). Thus, in a very real sense Russell's Paradox spawned the invention of ZF set theory and completely revised the foundations of mathematics!

Another mainstream formalization of set theory, devised by von Neumann, Bernays, and Goedel, uses class variables rather than setvar variables as its primitives. The axiom system NBG in [Mendelson] p. 225 is suitable for a Metamath encoding. NBG is a conservative extension of ZF in that it proves exactly the same theorems as ZF that are expressible in the language of ZF. An advantage of NBG is that it is finitely axiomatizable - the Axiom of Replacement can be broken down into a finite set of formulas that eliminate its wff metavariable. Finite axiomatizability is required by some proof languages (although not by Metamath). There is a stronger version of NBG called Morse-Kelley (axiom system MK in [Mendelson] p. 287).

Russell himself continued in a different direction, avoiding the paradox with his "theory of types." Quine extended Russell's ideas to formulate his New Foundations set theory (axiom system NF of [Quine] p. 331). In NF, the collection of all sets is a set, contradicting ZF and NBG set theories, and it has other bizarre consequences: when sets become too huge (beyond the size of those used in standard mathematics), the Axiom of Choice ac4 8849 and Cantor's Theorem canth 6201 are provably false! (See ncanth 6202 for some intuition behind the latter.) Recent results (as of 2014) seem to show that NF is equiconsistent to Z (ZF in which ax-sep 4482 replaces ax-rep 4472) with ax-sep 4482 restricted to only bounded quantifiers. NF is finitely axiomatizable and can be encoded in Metamath using the axioms from T. Hailperin, "A set of axioms for logic," J. Symb. Logic 9:1-19 (1944).

Under our ZF set theory, every set is a member of the Russell class by elirrv 8058 (derived from the Axiom of Regularity), so for us the Russell class equals the universe 
_V (theorem ruv 8061). See ruALT 8062 for an alternate proof of ru 3234 derived from that fact. (Contributed by NM, 7-Aug-1994.)

 |- 
 { x  |  x  e/  x }  e/  _V
 
2.1.9  Proper substitution of classes for sets
 
Syntaxwsbc 3235 Extend wff notation to include the proper substitution of a class for a set. Read this notation as "the proper substitution of class  A for setvar variable  x in wff  ph."
 wff  [. A  /  x ].
 ph
 
Definitiondf-sbc 3236 Define the proper substitution of a class for a set.

When  A is a proper class, our definition evaluates to false. This is somewhat arbitrary: we could have, instead, chosen the conclusion of sbc6 3262 for our definition, which always evaluates to true for proper classes.

Our definition also does not produce the same results as discussed in the proof of Theorem 6.6 of [Quine] p. 42 (although Theorem 6.6 itself does hold, as shown by dfsbcq 3237 below). For example, if  A is a proper class, Quine's substitution of 
A for  y in  0  e.  y evaluates to  0  e.  A rather than our falsehood. (This can be seen by substituting  A,  y, and  0 for alpha, beta, and gamma in Subcase 1 of Quine's discussion on p. 42.) Unfortunately, Quine's definition requires a recursive syntactic breakdown of  ph, and it does not seem possible to express it with a single closed formula.

If we did not want to commit to any specific proper class behavior, we could use this definition only to prove theorem dfsbcq 3237, which holds for both our definition and Quine's, and from which we can derive a weaker version of df-sbc 3236 in the form of sbc8g 3243. However, the behavior of Quine's definition at proper classes is similarly arbitrary, and for practical reasons (to avoid having to prove sethood of  A in every use of this definition) we allow direct reference to df-sbc 3236 and assert that  [. A  /  x ]. ph is always false when  A is a proper class.

The theorem sbc2or 3244 shows the apparently "strongest" statement we can make regarding behavior at proper classes if we start from dfsbcq 3237.

The related definition df-csb 3332 defines proper substitution into a class variable (as opposed to a wff variable). (Contributed by NM, 14-Apr-1995.) (Revised by NM, 25-Dec-2016.)

 |-  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  A  e.  { x  |  ph } )
 
Theoremdfsbcq 3237 Proper substitution of a class for a set in a wff given equal classes. This is the essence of the sixth axiom of Frege, specifically Proposition 52 of [Frege1879] p. 50.

This theorem, which is similar to Theorem 6.7 of [Quine] p. 42 and holds under both our definition and Quine's, provides us with a weak definition of the proper substitution of a class for a set. Since our df-sbc 3236 does not result in the same behavior as Quine's for proper classes, if we wished to avoid conflict with Quine's definition we could start with this theorem and dfsbcq2 3238 instead of df-sbc 3236. (dfsbcq2 3238 is needed because unlike Quine we do not overload the df-sb 1791 syntax.) As a consequence of these theorems, we can derive sbc8g 3243, which is a weaker version of df-sbc 3236 that leaves substitution undefined when  A is a proper class.

However, it is often a nuisance to have to prove the sethood hypothesis of sbc8g 3243, so we will allow direct use of df-sbc 3236 after theorem sbc2or 3244 below. Proper substitution with a proper class is rarely needed, and when it is, we can simply use the expansion of Quine's definition. (Contributed by NM, 14-Apr-1995.)

 |-  ( A  =  B  ->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  [. B  /  x ].
 ph ) )
 
Theoremdfsbcq2 3238 This theorem, which is similar to Theorem 6.7 of [Quine] p. 42 and holds under both our definition and Quine's, relates logic substitution df-sb 1791 and substitution for class variables df-sbc 3236. Unlike Quine, we use a different syntax for each in order to avoid overloading it. See remarks in dfsbcq 3237. (Contributed by NM, 31-Dec-2016.)
 |-  ( y  =  A  ->  ( [ y  /  x ] ph  <->  [. A  /  x ].
 ph ) )
 
Theoremsbsbc 3239 Show that df-sb 1791 and df-sbc 3236 are equivalent when the class term  A in df-sbc 3236 is a setvar variable. This theorem lets us reuse theorems based on df-sb 1791 for proofs involving df-sbc 3236. (Contributed by NM, 31-Dec-2016.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
 |-  ( [ y  /  x ] ph  <->  [. y  /  x ].
 ph )
 
Theoremsbceq1d 3240 Equality theorem for class substitution. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Feb-2017.) (Revised by NM, 30-Jun-2018.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  A  =  B )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( [. A  /  x ].
 ps 
 <-> 
 [. B  /  x ].
 ps ) )
 
Theoremsbceq1dd 3241 Equality theorem for class substitution. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Feb-2017.) (Revised by NM, 30-Jun-2018.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  A  =  B )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  [. A  /  x ]. ps )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  [. B  /  x ]. ps )
 
Theoremsbceqbid 3242* Equality theorem for class substitution. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 4-Sep-2018.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  A  =  B )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  ( ps  <->  ch ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  (
 [. A  /  x ].
 ps 
 <-> 
 [. B  /  x ].
 ch ) )
 
Theoremsbc8g 3243 This is the closest we can get to df-sbc 3236 if we start from dfsbcq 3237 (see its comments) and dfsbcq2 3238. (Contributed by NM, 18-Nov-2008.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 29-Jun-2011.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
 |-  ( A  e.  V  ->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  A  e.  { x  |  ph } ) )
 
Theoremsbc2or 3244* The disjunction of two equivalences for class substitution does not require a class existence hypothesis. This theorem tells us that there are only 2 possibilities for  [ A  /  x ] ph behavior at proper classes, matching the sbc5 3260 (false) and sbc6 3262 (true) conclusions. This is interesting since dfsbcq 3237 and dfsbcq2 3238 (from which it is derived) do not appear to say anything obvious about proper class behavior. Note that this theorem doesn't tell us that it is always one or the other at proper classes; it could "flip" between false (the first disjunct) and true (the second disjunct) as a function of some other variable  y that  ph or  A may contain. (Contributed by NM, 11-Oct-2004.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
 |-  ( ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  E. x ( x  =  A  /\  ph )
 )  \/  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  A. x ( x  =  A  ->  ph )
 ) )
 
Theoremsbcex 3245 By our definition of proper substitution, it can only be true if the substituted expression is a set. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Oct-2016.)
 |-  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  ->  A  e.  _V )
 
Theoremsbceq1a 3246 Equality theorem for class substitution. Class version of sbequ12 2052. (Contributed by NM, 26-Sep-2003.)
 |-  ( x  =  A  ->  ( ph  <->  [. A  /  x ].
 ph ) )
 
Theoremsbceq2a 3247 Equality theorem for class substitution. Class version of sbequ12r 2053. (Contributed by NM, 4-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( A  =  x 
 ->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  ph ) )
 
Theoremspsbc 3248 Specialization: if a formula is true for all sets, it is true for any class which is a set. Similar to Theorem 6.11 of [Quine] p. 44. This is Frege's ninth axiom per Proposition 58 of [Frege1879] p. 51. See also stdpc4 2152 and rspsbc 3314. (Contributed by NM, 16-Jan-2004.)
 |-  ( A  e.  V  ->  ( A. x ph  -> 
 [. A  /  x ].
 ph ) )
 
Theoremspsbcd 3249 Specialization: if a formula is true for all sets, it is true for any class which is a set. Similar to Theorem 6.11 of [Quine] p. 44. See also stdpc4 2152 and rspsbc 3314. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Feb-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  V )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A. x ps )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  [. A  /  x ]. ps )
 
Theoremsbcth 3250 A substitution into a theorem remains true (when  A is a set). (Contributed by NM, 5-Nov-2005.)
 |-  ph   =>    |-  ( A  e.  V  -> 
 [. A  /  x ].
 ph )
 
Theoremsbcthdv 3251* Deduction version of sbcth 3250. (Contributed by NM, 30-Nov-2005.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 8-Jun-2011.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  ps )   =>    |-  (
 ( ph  /\  A  e.  V )  ->  [. A  /  x ]. ps )
 
Theoremsbcid 3252 An identity theorem for substitution. See sbid 2055. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Feb-2017.)
 |-  ( [. x  /  x ]. ph  <->  ph )
 
Theoremnfsbc1d 3253 Deduction version of nfsbc1 3254. (Contributed by NM, 23-May-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Oct-2016.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  F/_ x A )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  F/ x [. A  /  x ]. ps )
 
Theoremnfsbc1 3254 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for class substitution. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Oct-2016.)
 |-  F/_ x A   =>    |- 
 F/ x [. A  /  x ]. ph
 
Theoremnfsbc1v 3255* Bound-variable hypothesis builder for class substitution. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Oct-2016.)
 |- 
 F/ x [. A  /  x ]. ph
 
Theoremnfsbcd 3256 Deduction version of nfsbc 3257. (Contributed by NM, 23-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Oct-2016.)
 |- 
 F/ y ph   &    |-  ( ph  ->  F/_ x A )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  F/ x ps )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  F/ x [. A  /  y ]. ps )
 
Theoremnfsbc 3257 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for class substitution. (Contributed by NM, 7-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Oct-2016.)
 |-  F/_ x A   &    |-  F/ x ph   =>    |-  F/ x [. A  /  y ]. ph
 
Theoremsbcco 3258* A composition law for class substitution. (Contributed by NM, 26-Sep-2003.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Oct-2016.)
 |-  ( [. A  /  y ]. [. y  /  x ]. ph  <->  [. A  /  x ].
 ph )
 
Theoremsbcco2 3259* A composition law for class substitution. Importantly,  x may occur free in the class expression substituted for  A. (Contributed by NM, 5-Sep-2004.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 8-Jun-2011.)
 |-  ( x  =  y 
 ->  A  =  B )   =>    |-  ( [. x  /  y ]. [. B  /  x ].
 ph 
 <-> 
 [. A  /  x ].
 ph )
 
Theoremsbc5 3260* An equivalence for class substitution. (Contributed by NM, 23-Aug-1993.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Oct-2016.)
 |-  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  E. x ( x  =  A  /\  ph )
 )
 
Theoremsbc6g 3261* An equivalence for class substitution. (Contributed by NM, 11-Oct-2004.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 8-Jun-2011.)
 |-  ( A  e.  V  ->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  A. x ( x  =  A  ->  ph )
 ) )
 
Theoremsbc6 3262* An equivalence for class substitution. (Contributed by NM, 23-Aug-1993.) (Proof shortened by Eric Schmidt, 17-Jan-2007.)
 |-  A  e.  _V   =>    |-  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  A. x ( x  =  A  ->  ph )
 )
 
Theoremsbc7 3263* An equivalence for class substitution in the spirit of df-clab 2409. Note that  x and  A don't have to be distinct. (Contributed by NM, 18-Nov-2008.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Oct-2016.)
 |-  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  E. y ( y  =  A  /\  [. y  /  x ]. ph )
 )
 
Theoremcbvsbc 3264 Change bound variables in a wff substitution. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 19-Sep-2009.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 8-Jun-2011.)
 |- 
 F/ y ph   &    |-  F/ x ps   &    |-  ( x  =  y  ->  (
 ph 
 <->  ps ) )   =>    |-  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  [. A  /  y ]. ps )
 
Theoremcbvsbcv 3265* Change the bound variable of a class substitution using implicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 30-Sep-2008.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Oct-2016.)
 |-  ( x  =  y 
 ->  ( ph  <->  ps ) )   =>    |-  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  [. A  /  y ]. ps )
 
Theoremsbciegft 3266* Conversion of implicit substitution to explicit class substitution, using a bound-variable hypothesis instead of distinct variables. (Closed theorem version of sbciegf 3267.) (Contributed by NM, 10-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Oct-2016.)
 |-  ( ( A  e.  V  /\  F/ x ps  /\ 
 A. x ( x  =  A  ->  ( ph 
 <->  ps ) ) ) 
 ->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  ps ) )
 
Theoremsbciegf 3267* Conversion of implicit substitution to explicit class substitution. (Contributed by NM, 14-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Oct-2016.)
 |- 
 F/ x ps   &    |-  ( x  =  A  ->  (
 ph 
 <->  ps ) )   =>    |-  ( A  e.  V  ->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  ps ) )
 
Theoremsbcieg 3268* Conversion of implicit substitution to explicit class substitution. (Contributed by NM, 10-Nov-2005.)
 |-  ( x  =  A  ->  ( ph  <->  ps ) )   =>    |-  ( A  e.  V  ->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  ps ) )
 
Theoremsbcie2g 3269* Conversion of implicit substitution to explicit class substitution. This version of sbcie 3270 avoids a disjointness condition on  x ,  A by substituting twice. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Oct-2016.)
 |-  ( x  =  y 
 ->  ( ph  <->  ps ) )   &    |-  (
 y  =  A  ->  ( ps  <->  ch ) )   =>    |-  ( A  e.  V  ->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  ch ) )
 
Theoremsbcie 3270* Conversion of implicit substitution to explicit class substitution. (Contributed by NM, 4-Sep-2004.)
 |-  A  e.  _V   &    |-  ( x  =  A  ->  (
 ph 
 <->  ps ) )   =>    |-  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  ps )
 
Theoremsbciedf 3271* Conversion of implicit substitution to explicit class substitution, deduction form. (Contributed by NM, 29-Dec-2014.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  V )   &    |-  ( ( ph  /\  x  =  A ) 
 ->  ( ps  <->  ch ) )   &    |-  F/ x ph   &    |-  ( ph  ->  F/ x ch )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  (
 [. A  /  x ].
 ps 
 <->  ch ) )
 
Theoremsbcied 3272* Conversion of implicit substitution to explicit class substitution, deduction form. (Contributed by NM, 13-Dec-2014.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  V )   &    |-  ( ( ph  /\  x  =  A ) 
 ->  ( ps  <->  ch ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  (
 [. A  /  x ].
 ps 
 <->  ch ) )
 
Theoremsbcied2 3273* Conversion of implicit substitution to explicit class substitution, deduction form. (Contributed by NM, 13-Dec-2014.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  V )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  =  B )   &    |-  (
 ( ph  /\  x  =  B )  ->  ( ps 
 <->  ch ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  (
 [. A  /  x ].
 ps 
 <->  ch ) )
 
Theoremelrabsf 3274 Membership in a restricted class abstraction, expressed with explicit class substitution. (The variation elrabf 3162 has implicit substitution). The hypothesis specifies that  x must not be a free variable in  B. (Contributed by NM, 30-Sep-2003.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 13-Oct-2016.)
 |-  F/_ x B   =>    |-  ( A  e.  { x  e.  B  |  ph
 } 
 <->  ( A  e.  B  /\  [. A  /  x ].
 ph ) )
 
Theoremeqsbc3 3275* Substitution applied to an atomic wff. Set theory version of eqsb3 2527. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 29-Jun-2011.)
 |-  ( A  e.  V  ->  ( [. A  /  x ]. x  =  B  <->  A  =  B ) )
 
Theoremsbcng 3276 Move negation in and out of class substitution. (Contributed by NM, 16-Jan-2004.)
 |-  ( A  e.  V  ->  ( [. A  /  x ].  -.  ph  <->  -.  [. A  /  x ].
 ph ) )
 
Theoremsbcimg 3277 Distribution of class substitution over implication. (Contributed by NM, 16-Jan-2004.)
 |-  ( A  e.  V  ->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ( ph  ->  ps )  <->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  ->  [. A  /  x ]. ps ) ) )
 
Theoremsbcan 3278 Distribution of class substitution over conjunction. (Contributed by NM, 31-Dec-2016.) (Revised by NM, 17-Aug-2018.)
 |-  ( [. A  /  x ]. ( ph  /\  ps ) 
 <->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  /\  [. A  /  x ]. ps )
 )
 
Theoremsbcor 3279 Distribution of class substitution over disjunction. (Contributed by NM, 31-Dec-2016.) (Revised by NM, 17-Aug-2018.)
 |-  ( [. A  /  x ]. ( ph  \/  ps )  <->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  \/  [. A  /  x ]. ps ) )
 
Theoremsbcbig 3280 Distribution of class substitution over biconditional. (Contributed by Raph Levien, 10-Apr-2004.)
 |-  ( A  e.  V  ->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ( ph  <->  ps )  <->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  [. A  /  x ].
 ps ) ) )
 
Theoremsbcn1 3281 Move negation in and out of class substitution. One direction of sbcng 3276 that holds for proper classes. (Contributed by NM, 17-Aug-2018.)
 |-  ( [. A  /  x ].  -.  ph  ->  -.  [. A  /  x ].
 ph )
 
Theoremsbcim1 3282 Distribution of class substitution over implication. One direction of sbcimg 3277 that holds for proper classes. (Contributed by NM, 17-Aug-2018.)
 |-  ( [. A  /  x ]. ( ph  ->  ps )  ->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  ->  [. A  /  x ]. ps ) )
 
Theoremsbcbi1 3283 Distribution of class substitution over biconditional. One direction of sbcbig 3280 that holds for proper classes. (Contributed by NM, 17-Aug-2018.)
 |-  ( [. A  /  x ]. ( ph  <->  ps )  ->  ( [. A  /  x ].
 ph 
 <-> 
 [. A  /  x ].
 ps ) )
 
Theoremsbcbi2 3284 Substituting into equivalent wff's gives equivalent results. (Contributed by Giovanni Mascellani, 9-Apr-2018.)
 |-  ( A. x (
 ph 
 <->  ps )  ->  ( [. A  /  x ].
 ph 
 <-> 
 [. A  /  x ].
 ps ) )
 
Theoremsbcal 3285* Move universal quantifier in and out of class substitution. (Contributed by NM, 31-Dec-2016.) (Revised by NM, 18-Aug-2018.)
 |-  ( [. A  /  y ]. A. x ph  <->  A. x [. A  /  y ]. ph )
 
Theoremsbcex2 3286* Move existential quantifier in and out of class substitution. (Contributed by NM, 21-May-2004.) (Revised by NM, 18-Aug-2018.)
 |-  ( [. A  /  y ]. E. x ph  <->  E. x [. A  /  y ]. ph )
 
Theoremsbceqal 3287* Set theory version of sbeqal1 36655. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 28-Jun-2011.)
 |-  ( A  e.  V  ->  ( A. x ( x  =  A  ->  x  =  B )  ->  A  =  B )
 )
 
Theoremsbeqalb 3288* Theorem *14.121 in [WhiteheadRussell] p. 185. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 28-Jun-2011.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 9-May-2013.)
 |-  ( A  e.  V  ->  ( ( A. x ( ph  <->  x  =  A )  /\  A. x (
 ph 
 <->  x  =  B ) )  ->  A  =  B ) )
 
Theoremsbcbid 3289 Formula-building deduction rule for class substitution. (Contributed by NM, 29-Dec-2014.)
 |- 
 F/ x ph   &    |-  ( ph  ->  ( ps  <->  ch ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  (
 [. A  /  x ].
 ps 
 <-> 
 [. A  /  x ].
 ch ) )
 
Theoremsbcbidv 3290* Formula-building deduction rule for class substitution. (Contributed by NM, 29-Dec-2014.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  ( ps 
 <->  ch ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  (
 [. A  /  x ].
 ps 
 <-> 
 [. A  /  x ].
 ch ) )
 
Theoremsbcbii 3291 Formula-building inference rule for class substitution. (Contributed by NM, 11-Nov-2005.)
 |-  ( ph  <->  ps )   =>    |-  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  [. A  /  x ].
 ps )
 
Theoremeqsbc3r 3292* eqsbc3 3275 with setvar variable on right side of equals sign. This proof was automatically generated from the virtual deduction proof eqsbc3rVD 37146 using a translation program. (Contributed by Alan Sare, 24-Oct-2011.)
 |-  ( A  e.  V  ->  ( [. A  /  x ]. B  =  x  <->  B  =  A )
 )
 
Theoremsbc3an 3293 Distribution of class substitution over triple conjunction. (Contributed by NM, 14-Dec-2006.) (Revised by NM, 17-Aug-2018.)
 |-  ( [. A  /  x ]. ( ph  /\  ps  /\ 
 ch )  <->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  /\  [. A  /  x ]. ps  /\  [. A  /  x ]. ch ) )
 
Theoremsbcel1v 3294* Class substitution into a membership relation. (Contributed by NM, 17-Aug-2018.)
 |-  ( [. A  /  x ]. x  e.  B  <->  A  e.  B )
 
Theoremsbcel2gv 3295* Class substitution into a membership relation. (Contributed by NM, 17-Nov-2006.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 29-Jun-2011.)
 |-  ( B  e.  V  ->  ( [. B  /  x ]. A  e.  x  <->  A  e.  B ) )
 
Theoremsbcel21v 3296* Class substitution into a membership relation. One direction of sbcel2gv 3295 that holds for proper classes. (Contributed by NM, 17-Aug-2018.)
 |-  ( [. B  /  x ]. A  e.  x  ->  A  e.  B )
 
Theoremsbcimdv 3297* Substitution analog of Theorem 19.20 of [Margaris] p. 90 (alim 1677). (Contributed by NM, 11-Nov-2005.) (Revised by NM, 17-Aug-2018.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  ( ps  ->  ch ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  (
 [. A  /  x ].
 ps  ->  [. A  /  x ].
 ch ) )
 
Theoremsbctt 3298 Substitution for a variable not free in a wff does not affect it. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Oct-2016.)
 |-  ( ( A  e.  V  /\  F/ x ph )  ->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  ph ) )
 
Theoremsbcgf 3299 Substitution for a variable not free in a wff does not affect it. (Contributed by NM, 11-Oct-2004.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 29-Jun-2011.)
 |- 
 F/ x ph   =>    |-  ( A  e.  V  ->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ph  <->  ph ) )
 
Theoremsbc19.21g 3300 Substitution for a variable not free in antecedent affects only the consequent. (Contributed by NM, 11-Oct-2004.)
 |- 
 F/ x ph   =>    |-  ( A  e.  V  ->  ( [. A  /  x ]. ( ph  ->  ps )  <->  ( ph  ->  [. A  /  x ]. ps ) ) )
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