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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 29101-29200   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement
 
Theoremrrvmbfm 29101 A real-valued random variable is a measurable function from its sample space to the Borel Sigma Algebra. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 25-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( X  e.  (rRndVar `  P )  <->  X  e.  ( dom  PMblFnM𝔅 ) ) )
 
Theoremisrrvv 29102* Elementhood to the set of real-valued random variables with respect to the probability  P. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 25-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( X  e.  (rRndVar `  P )  <->  ( X : U. dom  P --> RR  /\  A. y  e. 𝔅  ( `' X "
 y )  e.  dom  P ) ) )
 
Theoremrrvvf 29103 A real-valued random variable is a function. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 25-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  X : U. dom  P --> RR )
 
Theoremrrvfn 29104 A real-valued random variable is a function over the universe. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 25-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  X  Fn  U. dom  P )
 
Theoremrrvdm 29105 The domain of a random variable is the universe. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 25-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  dom 
 X  =  U. dom  P )
 
Theoremrrvrnss 29106 The range of a random variable as a subset of  RR. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 6-Feb-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ran 
 X  C_  RR )
 
Theoremrrvf2 29107 A real-valued random variable is a function. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 25-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  X : dom  X --> RR )
 
Theoremrrvdmss 29108 The domain of a random variable. This is useful to shorten proofs. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 25-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  U.
 dom  P  C_  dom  X )
 
Theoremrrvfinvima 29109* For a real-value random variable  X, any open interval in 
RR is the image of a measurable set. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 25-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  A. y  e. 𝔅  ( `' X "
 y )  e.  dom  P )
 
Theorem0rrv 29110* The constant function equal to zero is a random variable. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 16-Jan-2017.) (Revised by Thierry Arnoux, 30-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( x  e. 
 U. dom  P  |->  0 )  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )
 
Theoremrrvadd 29111 The sum of two random variables is a random variable (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 4-Jun-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  Y  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( X  oF  +  Y )  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )
 
Theoremrrvmulc 29112 A random variable multiplied by a constant is a random variable. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 17-Jan-2017.) (Revised by Thierry Arnoux, 22-May-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  C  e.  RR )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( X𝑓/𝑐  x.  C )  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )
 
Theoremrrvsum 29113 An indexed sum of random variables is a random variable. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 22-May-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X : NN --> (rRndVar `  P ) )   &    |-  ( ( ph  /\  N  e.  NN )  ->  S  =  (  seq 1
 (  oF  +  ,  X ) `  N ) )   =>    |-  ( ( ph  /\  N  e.  NN )  ->  S  e.  (rRndVar `  P )
 )
 
21.3.20.4  Preimage set mapping operator
 
Syntaxcorvc 29114 Extend class notation to include the preimage set mapping operator.
 classRV/𝑐 R
 
Definitiondf-orvc 29115* Define the preimage set mapping operator. In probability theory, the notation  P ( X  =  A ) denotes the probability that a random variable  X takes the value  A. We introduce here an operator which enables to write this in Metamath as  ( P `  ( XRV/𝑐  _I  A ) ), and keep a similar notation. Because with this notation  ( XRV/𝑐  _I  A ) is a set, we can also apply it to conditional probabilities, like in  ( P `  ( XRV/𝑐  _I  A )  |  ( YRV/𝑐  _I  B ) ) ).

The oRVC operator transforms a relation  R into an operation taking a random variable  X and a constant  C, and returning the preimage through  X of the equivalence class of  C.

The most commonly used relations are: - equality:  { X  =  A } as  ( XRV/𝑐  _I  A ) cf. ideq 5007- elementhood:  { X  e.  A } as  ( XRV/𝑐  _E  A ) cf. epel 4768- less-than:  { X  <_  A } as  ( XRV/𝑐  <_  A )

Even though it is primarily designed to be used within probability theory and with random variables, this operator is defined on generic functions, and could be used in other fields, e.g. for continuous functions. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Jan-2017.)

 |-RV/𝑐 R  =  ( x  e.  { x  |  Fun  x } ,  a  e.  _V  |->  ( `' x " { y  |  y R a } )
 )
 
Theoremorvcval 29116* Value of the preimage mapping operator applied on a given random variable and constant (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 19-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  Fun  X )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  V )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  W )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( XRV/𝑐 R A )  =  ( `' X " { y  |  y R A }
 ) )
 
Theoremorvcval2 29117* Another way to express the value of the preimage mapping operator (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 19-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  Fun  X )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  V )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  W )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( XRV/𝑐 R A )  =  {
 z  e.  dom  X  |  ( X `  z
 ) R A }
 )
 
Theoremelorvc 29118* Elementhood of a preimage (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 21-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  Fun  X )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  V )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  W )   =>    |-  ( ( ph  /\  z  e.  dom  X )  ->  ( z  e.  ( XRV/𝑐 R A )  <->  ( X `  z ) R A ) )
 
Theoremorvcval4 29119* The value of the preimage mapping operator can be restricted to preimages in the base set of the topology. Cf. orvcval 29116 (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 21-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  S  e.  U. ran sigAlgebra )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  J  e.  Top )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  ( SMblFnM (sigaGen `  J )
 ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  V )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( XRV/𝑐 R A )  =  ( `' X " { y  e.  U. J  |  y R A } )
 )
 
Theoremorvcoel 29120* If the relation produces open sets, preimage maps by a measurable function are measurable sets. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 21-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  S  e.  U. ran sigAlgebra )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  J  e.  Top )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  ( SMblFnM (sigaGen `  J )
 ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  V )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  { y  e. 
 U. J  |  y R A }  e.  J )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( XRV/𝑐 R A )  e.  S )
 
Theoremorvccel 29121* If the relation produces closed sets, preimage maps by a measurable function are measurable sets. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 21-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  S  e.  U. ran sigAlgebra )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  J  e.  Top )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  ( SMblFnM (sigaGen `  J )
 ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  V )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  { y  e. 
 U. J  |  y R A }  e.  ( Clsd `  J )
 )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( XRV/𝑐 R A )  e.  S )
 
Theoremelorrvc 29122* Elementhood of a preimage for a real-valued random variable. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 21-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  V )   =>    |-  ( ( ph  /\  z  e.  U. dom  P ) 
 ->  ( z  e.  ( XRV/𝑐 R A )  <->  ( X `  z ) R A ) )
 
Theoremorrvcval4 29123* The value of the preimage mapping operator can be restricted to preimages of subsets of RR. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 21-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  V )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( XRV/𝑐 R A )  =  ( `' X " { y  e.  RR  |  y R A } ) )
 
Theoremorrvcoel 29124* If the relation produces open sets, preimage maps of a random variable are measurable sets. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 21-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  V )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  { y  e.  RR  |  y R A }  e.  ( topGen `
  ran  (,) ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( XRV/𝑐 R A )  e.  dom  P )
 
Theoremorrvccel 29125* If the relation produces closed sets, preimage maps are measurable sets. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 21-Jan-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  V )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  { y  e.  RR  |  y R A }  e.  ( Clsd `  ( topGen `  ran  (,) ) ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( XRV/𝑐 R A )  e.  dom  P )
 
Theoremorvcgteel 29126 Preimage maps produced by the "greater than or equal" relation are measurable sets. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 5-Feb-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  RR )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( XRV/𝑐 `' 
 <_  A )  e.  dom  P )
 
21.3.20.5  Distribution Functions
 
Theoremorvcelval 29127 Preimage maps produced by the "elementhood" relation (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 6-Feb-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  e. 𝔅 )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( XRV/𝑐  _E  A )  =  ( `' X " A ) )
 
Theoremorvcelel 29128 Preimage maps produced by the "elementhood" relation are measurable sets. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 5-Feb-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  e. 𝔅 )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( XRV/𝑐  _E  A )  e.  dom  P )
 
Theoremdstrvval 29129* The value of the distribution of a random variable. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 9-Feb-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  D  =  ( a  e. 𝔅 
 |->  ( P `  ( XRV/𝑐  _E  a ) ) ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  e. 𝔅 )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( D `  A )  =  ( P `  ( `' X " A ) ) )
 
Theoremdstrvprob 29130* The distribution of a random variable is a probability law (TODO: could be shortened using dstrvval 29129) (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 10-Feb-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  D  =  ( a  e. 𝔅 
 |->  ( P `  ( XRV/𝑐  _E  a ) ) ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  D  e. Prob )
 
21.3.20.6  Cumulative Distribution Functions
 
Theoremorvclteel 29131 Preimage maps produced by the "lower than or equal" relation are measurable sets. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 4-Feb-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  RR )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( XRV/𝑐  <_  A )  e.  dom  P )
 
Theoremdstfrvel 29132 Elementhood of preimage maps produced by the "lower than or equal" relation. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 13-Feb-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  RR )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  B  e.  U. dom  P )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  ( X `  B )  <_  A )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  B  e.  ( XRV/𝑐  <_  A ) )
 
Theoremdstfrvunirn 29133* The limit of all preimage maps by the "lower than or equal" relation is the universe. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 12-Feb-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  U.
 ran  ( n  e. 
 NN  |->  ( XRV/𝑐  <_  n ) )  = 
 U. dom  P )
 
Theoremorvclteinc 29134 Preimage maps produced by the "lower than or equal" relation are increasing. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 11-Feb-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  RR )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  B  e.  RR )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A 
 <_  B )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( XRV/𝑐  <_  A )  C_  ( XRV/𝑐  <_  B ) )
 
Theoremdstfrvinc 29135* A cumulative distribution function is non-decreasing. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 11-Feb-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  F  =  ( x  e.  RR  |->  ( P `  ( XRV/𝑐  <_  x ) ) ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  RR )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  B  e.  RR )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  A  <_  B )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( F `  A )  <_  ( F `  B ) )
 
Theoremdstfrvclim1 29136* The limit of the cumulative distribution function is one. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 12-Feb-2017.) (Revised by Thierry Arnoux, 11-Jul-2017.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  P  e. Prob )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  F  =  ( x  e.  RR  |->  ( P `  ( XRV/𝑐  <_  x ) ) ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  F  ~~>  1 )
 
21.3.20.7  Probabilities - example
 
Theoremcoinfliplem 29137 Division in the extended real numbers can be used for the coin-flip example. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Jan-2017.)
 |-  H  e.  _V   &    |-  T  e.  _V   &    |-  H  =/=  T   &    |-  P  =  ( ( #  |`  ~P { H ,  T }
 )𝑓/𝑐  / 
 2 )   &    |-  X  =  { <. H ,  1 >. ,  <. T ,  0
 >. }   =>    |-  P  =  ( ( #  |`  ~P { H ,  T } )𝑓/𝑐 /𝑒  2 )
 
Theoremcoinflipprob 29138 The  P we defined for coin-flip is a probability law. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Jan-2017.)
 |-  H  e.  _V   &    |-  T  e.  _V   &    |-  H  =/=  T   &    |-  P  =  ( ( #  |`  ~P { H ,  T }
 )𝑓/𝑐  / 
 2 )   &    |-  X  =  { <. H ,  1 >. ,  <. T ,  0
 >. }   =>    |-  P  e. Prob
 
Theoremcoinflipspace 29139 The space of our coin-flip probability (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Jan-2017.)
 |-  H  e.  _V   &    |-  T  e.  _V   &    |-  H  =/=  T   &    |-  P  =  ( ( #  |`  ~P { H ,  T }
 )𝑓/𝑐  / 
 2 )   &    |-  X  =  { <. H ,  1 >. ,  <. T ,  0
 >. }   =>    |- 
 dom  P  =  ~P { H ,  T }
 
Theoremcoinflipuniv 29140 The universe of our coin-flip probability is  { H ,  T }. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Jan-2017.)
 |-  H  e.  _V   &    |-  T  e.  _V   &    |-  H  =/=  T   &    |-  P  =  ( ( #  |`  ~P { H ,  T }
 )𝑓/𝑐  / 
 2 )   &    |-  X  =  { <. H ,  1 >. ,  <. T ,  0
 >. }   =>    |- 
 U. dom  P  =  { H ,  T }
 
Theoremcoinfliprv 29141 The  X we defined for coin-flip is a random variable. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 12-Jan-2017.)
 |-  H  e.  _V   &    |-  T  e.  _V   &    |-  H  =/=  T   &    |-  P  =  ( ( #  |`  ~P { H ,  T }
 )𝑓/𝑐  / 
 2 )   &    |-  X  =  { <. H ,  1 >. ,  <. T ,  0
 >. }   =>    |-  X  e.  (rRndVar `  P )
 
Theoremcoinflippv 29142 The probability of heads is one-half. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Jan-2017.)
 |-  H  e.  _V   &    |-  T  e.  _V   &    |-  H  =/=  T   &    |-  P  =  ( ( #  |`  ~P { H ,  T }
 )𝑓/𝑐  / 
 2 )   &    |-  X  =  { <. H ,  1 >. ,  <. T ,  0
 >. }   =>    |-  ( P `  { H } )  =  (
 1  /  2 )
 
Theoremcoinflippvt 29143 The probability of tails is one-half. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 5-Feb-2017.)
 |-  H  e.  _V   &    |-  T  e.  _V   &    |-  H  =/=  T   &    |-  P  =  ( ( #  |`  ~P { H ,  T }
 )𝑓/𝑐  / 
 2 )   &    |-  X  =  { <. H ,  1 >. ,  <. T ,  0
 >. }   =>    |-  ( P `  { T } )  =  (
 1  /  2 )
 
21.3.20.8  Bertrand's Ballot Problem
 
Theoremballotlemoex 29144*  O is a set. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 7-Dec-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   =>    |-  O  e.  _V
 
Theoremballotlem1 29145* The size of the universe is a binomial coefficient. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Nov-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   =>    |-  ( # `  O )  =  ( ( M  +  N )  _C  M )
 
Theoremballotlemelo 29146* Elementhood in  O. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 17-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   =>    |-  ( C  e.  O  <->  ( C  C_  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N ) )  /\  ( # `  C )  =  M ) )
 
Theoremballotlem2 29147* The probability that the first vote picked in a count is a B (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Nov-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   =>    |-  ( P `  { c  e.  O  |  -.  1  e.  c } )  =  ( N  /  ( M  +  N ) )
 
Theoremballotlemfval 29148* The value of F. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Nov-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  C  e.  O )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  J  e.  ZZ )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  (
 ( F `  C ) `  J )  =  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... J )  i^i  C ) )  -  ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... J )  \  C ) ) ) )
 
Theoremballotlemfelz 29149*  ( F `  C ) has values in  ZZ. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Nov-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  C  e.  O )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  J  e.  ZZ )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  (
 ( F `  C ) `  J )  e. 
 ZZ )
 
Theoremballotlemfp1 29150* If the  J th ballot is for A,  ( F `  C ) goes up 1. If the  J th ballot is for B,  ( F `  C ) goes down 1. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Nov-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  C  e.  O )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  J  e.  NN )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  (
 ( -.  J  e.  C  ->  ( ( F `
  C ) `  J )  =  (
 ( ( F `  C ) `  ( J  -  1 ) )  -  1 ) ) 
 /\  ( J  e.  C  ->  ( ( F `
  C ) `  J )  =  (
 ( ( F `  C ) `  ( J  -  1 ) )  +  1 ) ) ) )
 
Theoremballotlemfc0 29151*  F takes value 0 between negative and positive values. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Nov-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  C  e.  O )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  J  e.  NN )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  E. i  e.  ( 1 ... J ) ( ( F `
  C ) `  i )  <_  0 )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  0  <  ( ( F `  C ) `  J ) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  E. k  e.  ( 1 ... J ) ( ( F `
  C ) `  k )  =  0
 )
 
Theoremballotlemfcc 29152*  F takes value 0 between positive and negative values. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 2-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  C  e.  O )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  J  e.  NN )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  E. i  e.  ( 1 ... J ) 0  <_  (
 ( F `  C ) `  i ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  ( ( F `  C ) `  J )  <  0 )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  E. k  e.  ( 1 ... J ) ( ( F `
  C ) `  k )  =  0
 )
 
Theoremballotlemfmpn 29153*  ( F `  C ) finishes counting at  ( M  -  N ). (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 25-Nov-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   =>    |-  ( C  e.  O  ->  ( ( F `  C ) `  ( M  +  N )
 )  =  ( M  -  N ) )
 
Theoremballotlemfval0 29154*  ( F `  C ) always starts counting at 0 . (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 25-Nov-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   =>    |-  ( C  e.  O  ->  ( ( F `  C ) `  0
 )  =  0 )
 
Theoremballotleme 29155* Elements of  E. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Dec-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   =>    |-  ( C  e.  E 
 <->  ( C  e.  O  /\  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  C ) `  i ) ) )
 
Theoremballotlemodife 29156* Elements of  ( O  \  E ). (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 7-Dec-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   =>    |-  ( C  e.  ( O  \  E )  <-> 
 ( C  e.  O  /\  E. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) ( ( F `  C ) `  i )  <_ 
 0 ) )
 
Theoremballotlem4 29157* If the first pick is a vote for B, A is not ahead throughout the count (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 25-Nov-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   =>    |-  ( C  e.  O  ->  ( -.  1  e.  C  ->  -.  C  e.  E ) )
 
Theoremballotlem5 29158* If A is not ahead throughout, there is a  k where votes are tied. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 1-Dec-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   =>    |-  ( C  e.  ( O  \  E )  ->  E. k  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) ( ( F `  C ) `  k )  =  0 )
 
Theoremballotlemi 29159* Value of  I for a given counting  C. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 1-Dec-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   =>    |-  ( C  e.  ( O  \  E ) 
 ->  ( I `  C )  =  sup ( {
 k  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |  ( ( F `  C ) `  k
 )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )
 
Theoremballotlemiex 29160* Properties of  ( I `  C ). (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 12-Dec-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   =>    |-  ( C  e.  ( O  \  E ) 
 ->  ( ( I `  C )  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) )  /\  ( ( F `  C ) `  ( I `  C ) )  =  0 ) )
 
Theoremballotlemi1 29161* The first tie cannot be reached at the first pick. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 12-Mar-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   =>    |-  ( ( C  e.  ( O  \  E )  /\  -.  1  e.  C )  ->  ( I `  C )  =/=  1 )
 
Theoremballotlemii 29162* The first tie cannot be reached at the first pick. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 4-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   =>    |-  ( ( C  e.  ( O  \  E )  /\  1  e.  C )  ->  ( I `  C )  =/=  1 )
 
Theoremballotlemsup 29163* The set of zeroes of  F satisfies the conditions to have a supremum (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 1-Dec-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   =>    |-  ( C  e.  ( O  \  E ) 
 ->  E. z  e.  RR  ( A. w  e.  {
 k  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |  ( ( F `  C ) `  k
 )  =  0 }  -.  z `'  <  w 
 /\  A. w  e.  RR  ( w `'  <  z  ->  E. y  e.  {
 k  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |  ( ( F `  C ) `  k
 )  =  0 } w `'  <  y
 ) ) )
 
Theoremballotlemimin 29164*  ( I `  C ) is the first tie. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 1-Dec-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   =>    |-  ( C  e.  ( O  \  E ) 
 ->  -.  E. k  e.  ( 1 ... (
 ( I `  C )  -  1 ) ) ( ( F `  C ) `  k
 )  =  0 )
 
Theoremballotlemic 29165* If the first vote is for B, the vote on the first tie is for A. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 1-Dec-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   =>    |-  ( ( C  e.  ( O  \  E )  /\  -.  1  e.  C )  ->  ( I `  C )  e.  C )
 
Theoremballotlem1c 29166* If the first vote is for A, the vote on the first tie is for B. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 4-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   =>    |-  ( ( C  e.  ( O  \  E )  /\  1  e.  C )  ->  -.  ( I `  C )  e.  C )
 
Theoremballotlemsval 29167* Value of  S. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 12-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   =>    |-  ( C  e.  ( O  \  E )  ->  ( S `  C )  =  ( i  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  C ) ,  ( ( ( I `  C )  +  1 )  -  i ) ,  i
 ) ) )
 
Theoremballotlemsv 29168* Value of  S evaluated at  J for a given counting  C. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 12-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   =>    |-  ( ( C  e.  ( O  \  E ) 
 /\  J  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) ) 
 ->  ( ( S `  C ) `  J )  =  if ( J  <_  ( I `  C ) ,  (
 ( ( I `  C )  +  1
 )  -  J ) ,  J ) )
 
Theoremballotlemsgt1 29169*  S maps values less than  ( I `  C ) to values greater than 1. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 28-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   =>    |-  ( ( C  e.  ( O  \  E ) 
 /\  J  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) )  /\  J  <  ( I `  C ) )  -> 
 1  <  ( ( S `  C ) `  J ) )
 
Theoremballotlemsdom 29170* Domain of  S for a given counting  C. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 12-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   =>    |-  ( ( C  e.  ( O  \  E ) 
 /\  J  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) ) 
 ->  ( ( S `  C ) `  J )  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) )
 
Theoremballotlemsel1i 29171* The range  ( 1 ... ( I `  C
) ) is invariant under  ( S `  C ). (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 28-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   =>    |-  ( ( C  e.  ( O  \  E ) 
 /\  J  e.  (
 1 ... ( I `  C ) ) ) 
 ->  ( ( S `  C ) `  J )  e.  ( 1 ... ( I `  C ) ) )
 
Theoremballotlemsf1o 29172* The defined  S is a bijection, and an involution. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   =>    |-  ( C  e.  ( O  \  E )  ->  ( ( S `  C ) : ( 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) -1-1-onto-> ( 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 
 /\  `' ( S `  C )  =  ( S `  C ) ) )
 
Theoremballotlemsi 29173* The image by  S of the first tie pick is the first pick. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   =>    |-  ( C  e.  ( O  \  E )  ->  ( ( S `  C ) `  ( I `  C ) )  =  1 )
 
Theoremballotlemsima 29174* The image by  S of an interval before the first pick. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 5-May-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   =>    |-  ( ( C  e.  ( O  \  E ) 
 /\  J  e.  (
 1 ... ( I `  C ) ) ) 
 ->  ( ( S `  C ) " (
 1 ... J ) )  =  ( ( ( S `  C ) `
  J ) ... ( I `  C ) ) )
 
Theoremballotlemieq 29175* If two countings share the same first tie, they also have the same swap function. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 18-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   =>    |-  ( ( C  e.  ( O  \  E ) 
 /\  D  e.  ( O  \  E )  /\  ( I `  C )  =  ( I `  D ) )  ->  ( S `  C )  =  ( S `  D ) )
 
Theoremballotlemrval 29176* Value of  R. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   =>    |-  ( C  e.  ( O  \  E )  ->  ( R `  C )  =  ( ( S `
  C ) " C ) )
 
Theoremballotlemscr 29177* The image of  ( R `  C ) by  ( S `  C ). (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 21-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   =>    |-  ( C  e.  ( O  \  E )  ->  ( ( S `  C ) " ( R `  C ) )  =  C )
 
Theoremballotlemrv 29178* Value of  R evaluated at  J. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 17-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   =>    |-  ( ( C  e.  ( O  \  E ) 
 /\  J  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) ) 
 ->  ( J  e.  ( R `  C )  <->  if ( J  <_  ( I `  C ) ,  ( ( ( I `  C )  +  1 )  -  J ) ,  J )  e.  C )
 )
 
Theoremballotlemrv1 29179* Value of  R before the tie. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 11-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   =>    |-  ( ( C  e.  ( O  \  E ) 
 /\  J  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) )  /\  J  <_  ( I `  C ) )  ->  ( J  e.  ( R `  C )  <->  ( ( ( I `  C )  +  1 )  -  J )  e.  C ) )
 
Theoremballotlemrv2 29180* Value of  R after the tie. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 11-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   =>    |-  ( ( C  e.  ( O  \  E ) 
 /\  J  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) )  /\  ( I `  C )  <  J )  ->  ( J  e.  ( R `  C )  <->  J  e.  C ) )
 
Theoremballotlemro 29181* Range of  R is included in  O. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 17-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   =>    |-  ( C  e.  ( O  \  E )  ->  ( R `  C )  e.  O )
 
Theoremballotlemgval 29182* Expand the value of  .^. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 21-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   &    |-  .^  =  ( u  e. 
 Fin ,  v  e.  Fin  |->  ( ( # `  (
 v  i^i  u )
 )  -  ( # `  ( v  \  u ) ) ) )   =>    |-  ( ( U  e.  Fin  /\  V  e.  Fin )  ->  ( U  .^  V )  =  ( ( # `
  ( V  i^i  U ) )  -  ( # `
  ( V  \  U ) ) ) )
 
Theoremballotlemgun 29183* A property of the defined  .^ operator (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 26-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   &    |-  .^  =  ( u  e. 
 Fin ,  v  e.  Fin  |->  ( ( # `  (
 v  i^i  u )
 )  -  ( # `  ( v  \  u ) ) ) )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  U  e.  Fin )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  V  e.  Fin )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  W  e.  Fin )   &    |-  ( ph  ->  ( V  i^i  W )  =  (/) )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ( U  .^  ( V  u.  W ) )  =  ( ( U  .^  V )  +  ( U  .^  W ) ) )
 
Theoremballotlemfg 29184* Express the value of  ( F `  C
) in terms of  .^. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 21-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   &    |-  .^  =  ( u  e. 
 Fin ,  v  e.  Fin  |->  ( ( # `  (
 v  i^i  u )
 )  -  ( # `  ( v  \  u ) ) ) )   =>    |-  ( ( C  e.  ( O  \  E ) 
 /\  J  e.  (
 0 ... ( M  +  N ) ) ) 
 ->  ( ( F `  C ) `  J )  =  ( C  .^  ( 1 ... J ) ) )
 
Theoremballotlemfrc 29185* Express the value of  ( F `  ( R `  C )
) in terms of the newly defined  .^. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 21-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   &    |-  .^  =  ( u  e. 
 Fin ,  v  e.  Fin  |->  ( ( # `  (
 v  i^i  u )
 )  -  ( # `  ( v  \  u ) ) ) )   =>    |-  ( ( C  e.  ( O  \  E ) 
 /\  J  e.  (
 1 ... ( I `  C ) ) ) 
 ->  ( ( F `  ( R `  C ) ) `  J )  =  ( C  .^  ( ( ( S `
  C ) `  J ) ... ( I `  C ) ) ) )
 
Theoremballotlemfrci 29186* Reverse counting preserves a tie at the first tie. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 21-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   &    |-  .^  =  ( u  e. 
 Fin ,  v  e.  Fin  |->  ( ( # `  (
 v  i^i  u )
 )  -  ( # `  ( v  \  u ) ) ) )   =>    |-  ( C  e.  ( O  \  E )  ->  ( ( F `  ( R `  C ) ) `  ( I `
  C ) )  =  0 )
 
Theoremballotlemfrceq 29187* Value of  F for a reverse counting  ( R `  C ). (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   &    |-  .^  =  ( u  e. 
 Fin ,  v  e.  Fin  |->  ( ( # `  (
 v  i^i  u )
 )  -  ( # `  ( v  \  u ) ) ) )   =>    |-  ( ( C  e.  ( O  \  E ) 
 /\  J  e.  (
 1 ... ( I `  C ) ) ) 
 ->  ( ( F `  C ) `  (
 ( ( S `  C ) `  J )  -  1 ) )  =  -u ( ( F `
  ( R `  C ) ) `  J ) )
 
Theoremballotlemfrcn0 29188* Value of  F for a reversed counting  ( R `  C ), before the first tie, cannot be zero . (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 25-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   =>    |-  ( ( C  e.  ( O  \  E ) 
 /\  J  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) )  /\  J  <  ( I `  C ) )  ->  ( ( F `  ( R `  C ) ) `  J )  =/=  0 )
 
Theoremballotlemrc 29189* Range of  R. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 19-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   =>    |-  ( C  e.  ( O  \  E )  ->  ( R `  C )  e.  ( O  \  E ) )
 
Theoremballotlemirc 29190* Applying  R does not change first ties. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 19-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   =>    |-  ( C  e.  ( O  \  E )  ->  ( I `  ( R `
  C ) )  =  ( I `  C ) )
 
Theoremballotlemrinv0 29191* Lemma for ballotlemrinv 29192. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 18-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   =>    |-  ( ( C  e.  ( O  \  E ) 
 /\  D  =  ( ( S `  C ) " C ) ) 
 ->  ( D  e.  ( O  \  E )  /\  C  =  ( ( S `  D ) " D ) ) )
 
Theoremballotlemrinv 29192*  R is its own inverse : it is an involution. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 10-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   =>    |-  `' R  =  R
 
Theoremballotlem1ri 29193* When the vote on the first tie is for A, the first vote is also for A on the reverse counting. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 18-Apr-2017.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   =>    |-  ( C  e.  ( O  \  E )  ->  ( 1  e.  ( R `  C )  <->  ( I `  C )  e.  C ) )
 
Theoremballotlem7 29194*  R is a bijection between two subsets of  ( O  \  E
): one where a vote for A is picked first, and one where a vote for B is picked first (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 12-Dec-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   =>    |-  ( R  |`  { c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |  1  e.  c } ) : {
 c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |  1  e.  c } -1-1-onto-> {
 c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |  -.  1  e.  c }
 
Theoremballotlem8 29195* There are as many countings with ties starting with a ballot for A as there are starting with a ballot for B. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 7-Dec-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   =>    |-  ( # `  { c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |  1  e.  c } )  =  ( # `  { c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |  -.  1  e.  c } )
 
Theoremballotth 29196* Bertrand's ballot problem : the probability that A is ahead throughout the counting. This is Metamath 100 proof #30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 7-Dec-2016.)
 |-  M  e.  NN   &    |-  N  e.  NN   &    |-  O  =  { c  e.  ~P ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( # `  c )  =  M }   &    |-  P  =  ( x  e.  ~P O  |->  ( ( # `  x )  /  ( # `  O ) ) )   &    |-  F  =  ( c  e.  O  |->  ( i  e.  ZZ  |->  ( ( # `  (
 ( 1 ... i
 )  i^i  c )
 )  -  ( # `  ( ( 1 ... i )  \  c
 ) ) ) ) )   &    |-  E  =  {
 c  e.  O  |  A. i  e.  (
 1 ... ( M  +  N ) ) 0  <  ( ( F `
  c ) `  i ) }   &    |-  N  <  M   &    |-  I  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  sup ( { k  e.  ( 1 ... ( M  +  N )
 )  |  ( ( F `  c ) `
  k )  =  0 } ,  RR ,  `'  <  ) )   &    |-  S  =  ( c  e.  ( O  \  E )  |->  ( i  e.  ( 1
 ... ( M  +  N ) )  |->  if ( i  <_  ( I `  c ) ,  ( ( ( I `
  c )  +  1 )  -  i
 ) ,  i ) ) )   &    |-  R  =  ( c  e.  ( O 
 \  E )  |->  ( ( S `  c
 ) " c ) )   =>    |-  ( P `  E )  =  ( ( M  -  N )  /  ( M  +  N ) )
 
21.3.21  Signum (sgn or sign) function - misc. additions
 
Theoremsgncl 29197 Closure of the signum. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 28-Sep-2018.)
 |-  ( A  e.  RR*  ->  (sgn `  A )  e.  { -u 1 ,  0 ,  1 } )
 
Theoremsgnclre 29198 Closure of the signum. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 28-Sep-2018.)
 |-  ( A  e.  RR  ->  (sgn `  A )  e.  RR )
 
Theoremsgnneg 29199 Negation of the signum. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 1-Oct-2018.)
 |-  ( A  e.  RR  ->  (sgn `  -u A )  =  -u (sgn `  A )
 )
 
Theoremsgn3da 29200 A conditional containing a signum is true if it is true in all three possible cases. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 1-Oct-2018.)
 |-  ( ph  ->  A  e.  RR* )   &    |-  ( (sgn `  A )  =  0  ->  ( ps  <->  ch ) )   &    |-  (
 (sgn `  A )  =  1  ->  ( ps  <->  th ) )   &    |-  ( (sgn `  A )  =  -u 1  ->  ( ps  <->  ta ) )   &    |-  (
 ( ph  /\  A  =  0 )  ->  ch )   &    |-  (
 ( ph  /\  0  <  A )  ->  th )   &    |-  (
 ( ph  /\  A  <  0 )  ->  ta )   =>    |-  ( ph  ->  ps )
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