Description: Theorem 9.26 of [Clemente] p. 45, translated line by line using an
interpretation of natural deduction in Metamath. This proof has some
additional complications due to the fact that Metamath's existential
elimination rule does not change bound variables, so we need to verify
that is bound in the conclusion.
For information about ND and Metamath, see the
page on Deduction Form and Natural Deduction
in Metamath Proof Explorer.
The original proof, which uses Fitch style, was written as follows
(the leading "..." shows an embedded ND hypothesis, beginning with
the initial assumption of the ND hypothesis):
#  MPE#  ND Expression 
MPE Translation  ND Rationale 
MPE Rationale 
1  3  

Given 
$e. 
2  6  ... 

ND hypothesis assumption 
simpr 462. Later statements will have this scope. 
3  7;5,4  ... 

E 2,y 
spsbcd 3313 (E), 5,6. To use it we need a1i 11 and vex 3083.
This could be immediately done with 19.21bi 1924, but we want to show
the general approach for substitution.

4  12;8,9,10,11  ... 

I 3,a 
spesbcd 3382 (I), 11.
To use it we need sylibr 215, which in turn requires sylib 199 and
two uses of sbcid 3316.
This could be more immediately done using 19.8a 1912, but we want to show
the general approach for substitution.

5  13;1,2  
 E 1,2,4,a 
exlimdd 2039 (E), 1,2,3,12.
We'll need supporting
assertions that the variable is free (not bound),
as provided in nfv 1755 and nfe1 1894 (MPE# 1,2) 
6  14  

I 5 
alrimiv 1767 (I), 13 
The original used Latin letters for predicates;
we have replaced them with
Greek letters to follow Metamath naming conventions and so that
it is easier to follow the Metamath translation.
The Metamath lineforline translation of this
natural deduction approach precedes every line with an antecedent
including and uses the Metamath equivalents
of the natural deduction rules.
Below is the final metamath proof (which reorders some steps).
Note that in the original proof, has explicit
parameters. In Metamath, these parameters are always implicit, and the
parameters upon which a wff variable can depend are recorded in the
"allowed substitution hints" below.
A much more efficient proof, using more of Metamath and MPE's
capabilities, is shown in exnatded9.262 25869.
(Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
(Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9Feb2017.)
(Revised by David A. Wheeler, 18Feb2017.) 